Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 197 items for :

  • Agribusiness, Food Industry x
Clear All
Open access

Lucia Palšová

Abstract

The protection of the qualitative aspects of agricultural land is in the interests of both Slovakia and the European Union. Several policy documents have emerged in the European Union over the last few years, however, they have not been legally binding, as the EU Member States refuse all binding legal acts in this area. Therefore, solving the problem of agricultural land protection is left to the exclusive competence of the EU Member States. On the other hand, problems related to agricultural land cross the borders of states and that is why the Department of Law, Faculty of European Studies and Regional Development, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra submitted an international research project under the Erasmus + program, Key Action 3: Jean Monnet entitled “Central European Initiative on Agricultural Land Protection”. The aim is to strengthen the dialogue between key stakeholders in the protection of agricultural land in Central Europe what will have a positive impact on the achievement of the EU agri-environmental and food policy objectives.

Open access

R. Juhászné Tóth and J. Csapó

Abstract

The role of selenium has been changed over the last decade. The element that was previously considered to be toxic turned out to be present in the human body in amounts of 10–15 mg, and almost every cell of our body contains it. Selenium contributes to growth, supports healthy muscle activity, reproductive organs, reduces the toxicity of certain elements such as mercury, supports the immune system, and even delays the spread of certain viruses (influenza, Ebola, HIV). Selenium-deficient areas of Europe could be a risk for their populations. The recommended daily intake (RDA) of selenium is 55 µg/day, while WHO and FAO have set up the daily tolerable dose at 400 µg/day. We must count with the harmful effects of selenium overdose, but it is almost impossible to introduce this amount into our body solely with food. Our selenium sources can be refilled with food supplements or selenium-enriched functional foods. In the review article, we report about the role of selenium in the environment, selenium-enriched plants, selenium-enriched yeast, the role of selenium in animal feed and in the human body, the opportunities of selenium restoration, selenium-enriched animal products, and the selenium content of milk.

Open access

Monika Bumbalová

Abstract

Provision of services by public sector is a concept, which has been implemented for many decades in various forms of economic arrangement. Public sector policies and public services have significant impact on almost all spheres of life including agriculture. Throughout the history, there were times with smaller and bigger importance of public sector within the economy. The conditions of public sector always depend on the actual trend applied in the sphere of public administration and public management. After the period of New Public Management accompanied by leaning away from the “public” concept, a return to stronger statehood and more intensive public sector can be seen. There are several reasons for such development, which are also called megatrends. Urbanization, demography and social changes, climate changes and development of technology belong to the most intensive ones. The presented review paper deals with the description of the mentioned trends and provides a reflexion on their influence on the public sector and provision of public services in particular.

Open access

J. Csapó, Cs. Albert and D. Kiss

Abstract

We have developed methods for the production of protected methionine and protected lysine, making use of the reaction between citric acid and malic acid as well as methionine and lysine, on the one hand, and of the interaction between swollen bentonite and the two amino acids, on the other hand. Our in vivo and in vitro experiments have demonstrated that one part of the amino acids transformed during the reaction, while another part bound on the bentonite’s surface to a significant degree. Assisted by the reaction between hydroxycarboxylic acids and amino acids, we achieved a protection of about 75% for methionine and 60% for lysine, that is, 25% of the methionine and 40% of the lysine appeared in the free amino acid fraction. The swollen bentonite bound 75% of the added methionine and 60% of the added lysine. Our chemical analyses have demonstrated that through the time–temperature combinations applied by us the methionine and lysine do not undergo significant degradation and can be fully released from the protected form. Further, our in vitro experiments using rumen fluid from fistulated cattle showed that during the average retention time of the fodder in the rumen the protected amino acids will resist microbial enzymes and maintain their protected status during their presence in the rumen.

Open access

J. Csapó, D. Kiss and Cs. Albert

Abstract

Prebiotics are such indigestible food ingredients that enter the colon and serve as nutrient for bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Since fibres and oligosaccharides are the typical prebiotics, we produced prebiotics in our experiments with the reaction of lactose and malic acid as well as citric acid, where these reactions made use of an appropriate concentration of these substances, had an adequate duration, and were carried out under optimal temperature conditions. We determined the optimal parameters of the reaction, measured the loss of the starting materials as well as the increase in concentration of the end-product, and analysed the total sugar content of the hydrolysed prebiotics after hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid. In vitro experiments were performed to demonstrate our end-product’s resistance to carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, which is a fundamental requirement for a prebiotic so that upon reaching the colon it can serve as nutrient for the probiotic bacteria found there.

Open access

J. Csapó and Cs. Albert

Abstract

The research subject is the elaboration of a method and procedure for processing feather from poultry slaughterhouses and using it as antioxidant as well as for satisfying the sulphurous amino acid needs of ruminants. We investigated the level of digestion of the meal feather obtained with our technology, its antioxidant effect and role in the rumen fermentation of the ruminants. Making use of the digested feather meal’s antioxidant effect and amino acid composition, we make a suggestion for the preparation to be used as antioxidant and for the satisfaction of the sulphurous amino acid needs of ruminants. By adopting this procedure, the valueless feather can be transformed into a useful feed supplement (natural antioxidant, sulphur source) that can bring about significant economic growth. Pre-trials have been performed successfully, and in what follows we’ll need to prove through field trials and pilot-scale experiments that feather meal can be produced and utilized economically as antioxidant in monogastric animals and as a sulphur source in the studying of ruminants.

Open access

J. Csapó and Cs. Albert

Abstract

We have developed a new procedure for reducing soy trypsin inhibitor activity by means of heat treatment combined with chemical methods, through which soy trypsin inhibitor activity decreases to the tenth or twentieth part of the original value. We determined the optimal concentration of the applied chemicals (hydrogen-peroxide, ammonium-hydroxide) as well as the optimal temperature and duration of the treatment. The chemical procedure combined with heat treatment results in lower energy consumption as compared to the original heat treatment methods.

Open access

María Mar Delgado-Serrano and José Ángel Hurtado-Martos

Abstract

Land is an essential resource and plays a vital role in providing food and food security, water, ecosystem services and territorial resilience. However, the past few decades have generated enormous and increasingly unsustainable pressures on land use. The objective of this research is to analyse the main land use changes in Spain between 1987 and 2011 using data provided by the Corine Land Cover (CLC) project. The general trends in land use change at CLC level 1 in this period, and more specifically the changes occurring at CLC level 3 in land destined for agricultural use are analysed. The main reasons that explain these changes, including policy influences, are then identified. The results show that the area occupied by buildings and infrastructure has doubled, agricultural land has decreased and irrigated land has increased; forested areas have also increased, but their ecological quality has been degraded. These trends question the future sustainability of that land use in the analysed period.

Open access

Jarmila Lazíková and Zuzana Lazíková

Abstract

Land consolidation in the Slovak Republic is an important legal institute for fragmented agricultural land, which makes it difficult not only for the agricultural land market but also for the rational and efficient use of agricultural land. The necessity of land consolidation was already realized by the peasants in Slovakia at the beginning of the 20th century, when they voluntarily began to exchange the land. The law maker in Slovakia, however, did not realize the need for the arrangement of land relations until the year 1989, when the Law No. 229/1991 Coll. on the regulation of ownership relations to land and other agricultural property and Law No. 330/1991 Coll. on land arrangements, settlement of land ownership rights, district land offices, the Land Fund and land associations as amended were adopted. Moreover, land consolidation also addresses the development of the countryside and, last but not least, increases rural attractiveness for the inhabitants themselves. Rural development also belongs to the priorities of the EU. Thus, the implementation of the land consolidation projects is not only a wish of the owners or private investors, but also one of the ways to realize the goals of Slovakia and even of the European Union.