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Open access

I. Sukharevа

Abstract

One of the most important developments of modern economics is the concept of economic mechanism design. Mechanism design is the study of economic mechanisms that produce behaviors in public health. The concept has profound implications for management. Management involves the effective use of mechanisms to change behavior. Public health managers must have a strong background in sociology and psychology, negotiation, finance, economics, organizational theory, and leadership. All managers work with limited resources. Managers must understand finance and economics: budgets, investment in the Health Care system, accountability, investment return, optimization, and decision analysis. This feature creates unique challenges for educating and supporting public health managers. To advance public health management as a profession we must apply the basics of mechanism design to its challenges. Leadership science provides a base for development of managers’ personal skills and attributes. Many graduate programs in business management and public administration deal with public health management. Accordingly, application of mechanism design (economic, social and others) in public health management can help managers become more effective. Mechanism design in public health management could provide an important way to improve health of the population.

Open access

N. Goncharenko

Abstract

The paper discusses the new interactive technologies in teaching Russian as a foreign language. Based on a review of literature, research, theory, internet resources and current teaching practices the paper considers both theoretical and practical aspects of the usage of interactive technology in teaching Russian as a foreign language for medical students. The author demonstrates that learning Russian plays a vital role for foreign students studying medicine in Russia, being a prerequisite for their educational and professional work performance during their studies in a Russian university. The new modern technologies of teaching such as interactive teaching technologies largely contribute to the increase of foreign students’ motivation for learning the Russian language, particularly for medical and biological studies, and the efficiency of the learning process, as well as to the development of an active verbal communication during the classroom activities. Teaching experience demonstrates the effectiveness of interactive technologies for the development of speaking proficiency, interpersonal and communication skills. Based on the theory of teaching practice at a medical university and on the literature review as well, we specified the core characteristics of the interactive technologies compared to the traditional methods of teaching. Our review’s results make it possible to suggest that interactive technologies implementation should be based on mechanisms of dialogue, reflexivity and collaboration. These mechanisms contribute to the formation of the communicative as well as professional competence of foreign students.

Open access

A. Shrestha, R. M. Shrestha, S. Shrestha and S. Shrestha

Abstract

An access to adequate and safe blood transfusion services is an essential measure of basic healthcare systems. The main purpose of hemovigilance is to enhance the quality and safety of the blood transfusion chains, which are implemented for improving the quality of the blood transfusion chain processes, especially focusing on blood safety. Globally, the framework of hemovigilance is extending as one of the key escalations to the group of the human services administrations, recognizing restructured blood transfusions administrations.

The core objective of this review article is to highlight the objectives of the hemovigilance framework, historical aspects of the hemovigilance framework around the world and the scenario of Nepal. Furthermore, it likewise features the scopes and strategies for implementation of hemovigilance at a hospital. An acceptance and incorporation of the hemovigilance system in an oncology hospital or in any tertiary care hospitals in Nepal can avert the incidence or reappearance of adverse events due to the transfusion identified with the whole transfusion chain process. Globally, including the least developed country like Nepal, the hemovigilance framework must be incorporated and systematized for upgrading transfusion and general society certainty additionally regarding blood and its products. Different strategies must be made for the successful implementation and strengthening the hemovigilance system.

In conclusion, there is an interminable and endless necessity for the effort on hemovigilance; although the rules, regulations, and tools are in place. With the end goal to have a productive hemovigilance framework in the least developed countries like Nepal, an extensive methodology and enormous ideas are required.

Open access

Libor Ižvolt, Peter Dobeš and Juraj Pieš

Abstract

The initial part of the paper briefly characterizes the present state of the track substructure dimensioning for the non-traffic load and the necessity of updating the design map of frost indexes IFd as a basis for dimensioning. A substantial part of the paper is dedicated to the method of evaluating the data provided by the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMI), and determining the dependency of design air frost indexes IFd on altitude for the coldest winter period in the past 50 years. The paper conclusion presents the updated design map of frost indexes and the assessment of the importance of its updating in terms of the track substructure dimensioning methodology for the non-traffic load.

Open access

Rositsa Petkova-Slipets and Penka Zlateva

Abstract

The paper presents the results from a study of the thermo-physical properties of a new synthetic acrylic polymer used as material in road construction and as concrete on its basis. For the purposes of the study, the Modified Transient Plane Source Method (MTPS) was used. Data on the following thermal characteristics were obtained: thermal conductivity coefficient, thermal effusion, thermal diffusion and specific thermal capacity. A comparative analysis was made with the analogous indicators of conventional petroleum bitumen and asphalt concrete. The results of the study can be used for a more precise calculation and prognosis of temperature deformations and thermal stresses, as well as the crack propensity at low temperatures in asphalt concretes.

Open access

Pavel Kotlík

Abstract

: Technology roadmaps have become an essential part of the European Commission’s (EC) nanotechnology policy strategies. They represent socio-technical landscapes and evolving pathways, suggesting the underlying or otherwise supportive metaphorical patterns and narrative structures. For the same reason, however, roadmaps are problematic assemblages: they can simplify and distort reality, and filter things that don’t fit. The presented study combines cognitive linguistics with narratology to scrutinise the European Commission’s nanotechnology roadmapping as a discursive formation. It targets the systematic metaphors in approximately two-hundred news and reports on nanotechnology, compiled ad hoc from the CORDIS database (between the years 1999-2015). It is argued that the identified metaphors correspond to a discourse topology of ‘locations’, ‘events’, and their structures, especially as regards to the dilemma of ‘path dependence’, overcoming ‘knowledge gaps’, and reaching ‘nanoworld’. These are accompanied by a narrative climax of developing mature science policy model, in the arrangement of actions and roles for the European governments, science (nanotechnology), policy, and the public. The study demonstrates how systematic metaphors engage all the actors in the narrative of ‘innovation journey’ to form stabilised structures of meaning, that is, spatio-temporal consolidation of nanotechnology policy. It is imperative to continuously assess the context of such consolidation, being less overt but not necessarily less effective, in privileging some meanings, interests, and practices over the others, thereby excluding other political alternatives.

Open access

Ioan-Mădălin Neagu

Abstract

In the present paper, a fog computing framework for smart urban transport is developed. The proposed framework is adapted to the smart city concept. It uses a collaborative multitude of end-user clients to carry out a substantial amount of communication and computation. It can be adapted for specific situations of smart cities in Romania, such as: Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași or Bucharest. Economic and social implications as well as available European funding sources are presented.

Open access

Lucia Palšová

Abstract

The protection of the qualitative aspects of agricultural land is in the interests of both Slovakia and the European Union. Several policy documents have emerged in the European Union over the last few years, however, they have not been legally binding, as the EU Member States refuse all binding legal acts in this area. Therefore, solving the problem of agricultural land protection is left to the exclusive competence of the EU Member States. On the other hand, problems related to agricultural land cross the borders of states and that is why the Department of Law, Faculty of European Studies and Regional Development, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra submitted an international research project under the Erasmus + program, Key Action 3: Jean Monnet entitled “Central European Initiative on Agricultural Land Protection”. The aim is to strengthen the dialogue between key stakeholders in the protection of agricultural land in Central Europe what will have a positive impact on the achievement of the EU agri-environmental and food policy objectives.

Open access

Zeynab Mohammadian and Majid Shahbazi

Abstract

Housing is a widespread and complex issue with a variety of dimensions. First, housing was considered as a physical location and as a shelter and basic necessity of the households, but today the concept of dwelling as the place that provides all the services and facilities necessary for a better life of the family has been created. One of the issues discussed at many conferences and in general in the scientific community is the definition of sustainability in the psychological point of view, along with the ways to introduce this concept into the architecture and human habitat environments. This research first begins with the main question about how the concept of sustainability can be found within the scope of housing. Then existing resources search is done and accessible projects are analyzed and the weaknesses and strengths of traditional architecture and contemporary architecture are compared. Finally, the relationship between the definitions of three concepts: dwelling, sustainable design and traditional Iranian architecture was discussed. At the end, the sustainable design that is also appropriate to the Iranian culture was presented.