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Iulia Monica Dumitrescu, Nuno Crespo and Nadia Simões

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to bring a methodological and empirical contribution to the measurement of trade competition. Globalization and the emergence of new poles in the world economy brought changes to the global landscape and consequent increase in international trade. There is a debate in the literature with regard the indexes that are better fit to be applied in empirical examples for the acquirement of relevant results for measurement of trade competition. This measurement will be achieved by observing the levels of structural similarity in distinct areas and at different moments in time. A higher degree of similarity between the export structures implies a stronger competition in destination markets. The values obtained for this measurement are highly relevant for the trade competition topic. Through this study we further explore the measurement of trade competition and comparatively discuss several indexes used in this area of research.

Open access

Laura-Augustina Avram

Abstract

Intelligence is the traditional element of interest when measuring the human cognitive abilities. However, intelligence is complex and researchers are constantly finding new angles of looking at it. One such angle is reflective reasoning. Sometimes individuals choose to override the intuitive answer and by engaging in further reflection they reach the correct answer. The cognitive reflection test (CRT) measures a person’s ability to suppress their incorrect intuitive answer in favor of reflection that should then lead to the correct response. The test contains three short mathematically based problems, which measure, among others, cognitive ability, mathematical abilities and cognitive reflection. Using a sample of 195 students from a state university, one of the largest universities in Romania, we explore the extent to which a variety of phenomena and trends identified by previous findings on CRT show similar results on our sample.

Open access

Hlalefang Khobai, Nicolene Hamman, Thando Mkhombo, Simba Mhaka, Nomahlubi Mavikela and Andrew Phiri

Abstract

This study sought to contribute to the growing empirical literature by investigating the effects of FDI on per capita GDP growth for South Africa using time series data collected between 1970 and 2016. Compared to the majority of previous studies, we use quantile regressions which investigates the effects of FDI on economic growth at different distributional quantiles. Puzzling enough, the empirical results show that FDI has a negative influence on welfare at extremely low quantiles whereas at other levels this effect turns insignificant. Contrary, the effects of domestic investment on welfare is positive and significant at all levels. Collectively, these results have important implications for policymakers in South Africa.

Open access

Osayuwamen Omoruyi

Abstract

Logistics among competing organisations is a strategic management activity that can affect the operational, market and financial performance of an organisation. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) need to understand the role of logistics activities in achieving competitive performance and creating a high level of customer satisfaction through greater economies of scale in production and reduction in the price of goods. This study aims to determine the nature and extent of SMEs competitiveness through logistics activities. This research used a quantitative method of data collection and analysis. The data were statistically analysed using SPSS (25.0) as well as SMART-PLS (3.0) software for structural equation modelling (SEM) to assess the measurement reliability and the research structural model. The findings show that SMEs nature and extent of competitiveness based on logistics activities differs among the three measurement constructs, namely price/cost competitiveness, quality competitiveness and delivery competitiveness. This study adds value to the knowledge of the perceived benefits and importance of logistics activities among the participating SMEs.

Open access

Danie Francois Meyer, Chama Chipeta and Richard Thabang Mc Camel

Abstract

Price stability supports accelerated economic growth (GDP), thus the main objective of most central banks is to ensure price stability. The South African economy is experiencing a unique monetary policy dilemma, where a high inflation rate is accompanied by high interest rates and low GDP. This is an unconventional monetary policy scenario and may hold strenuous repercussions for the South African economy. This dilemma was held as the rationale behind this study. The study investigated the effectiveness of the use of the repo rate as an instrument to facilitate price stability and GDP in South Africa. Long-run, short-run and casual relationships between interest rates, inflation and GDP were therefore analyzed. The methodology is based on an econometric process which included a Johansen co-integration test, with a Vector Error Correction model (VECM). Casual relationships were also tested using Granger causality tests. Results of the Johansen Co-integration test indicated the presence of co-integrating long-run relationships between the variables and a significant and negative long-run relationship between the repo rate and inflation rate was revealed, whereas GDP and inflation rate exhibited a significant and positive long-run relationship. The study also found short-run relationships between inflation and GDP, but not for inflation and the repo rate. Further areas of potential research may fixate towards the assessment of other significant alternative policy tools which may be utilized by various countries’ monetary policy authorities to influence supply specific inflationary pressures led by the cost-push phenomena, especially in the short-run.

Open access

Donna L. Hoffman and Thomas P. Novak

Abstract

Up to now, IoT device adoption is happening mainly in the niche segments of technologically sophisticated upscale consumers and technology-focused DIYers. To reach a broader range of users, marketers must do a better job of understanding and offering the inherent value of smart products. Current marketing approaches are fragmented and tend to focus on individual products and single use cases. They may actually be underselling the consumer IoT. The mass-market consumer is not buying a platform or devices controlled by an algorithm, they are buying an experience. We need to ask, in what ways consumers and devices will interact with each other to create the experience they actually seek. Therefore, the main challenge is to implement a bottom-up approach that encourages users to experiment with their devices and their interactions and to integrate their individual experiences into everyday routines.

Open access

Markus Giesler and Eileen Fischer

Abstract

Consumers’ perceptions of technology are less matters of product attributes and concrete statistical evidence and more of captivating stories and myths. Managers of IoT can instill consumer trust when they tell highly emotional stories about the technologically empowered self, home, family or society. The key benefit of this approach is that storytelling-based IoT marketing allows consumers to forge strong and enduring emotional bonds with IoT and, in many cases, to develop loyalty beyond belief. However, stories aren’t always positive. Negative stories and meanings about a technology that are circulated in popular culture can be dangerous and harmful to a brand or a new technology. Regardless of its source, marketers need to understand the nature of the doppelgänger images that may be circulating for their technologies. They can be regarded as diagnostic tools to better understand how consumers think about and experience their IoT solutions. Also, doppelgänger narratives are valuable raw ingredients from which marketers can cull new, more captivating IoT stories that nurture consumer adoption.

Open access

Paul A. Pavlou

Abstract

Augmented Intelligence - effective human-computer symbiosis - has the potential to address emerging challenges successfully, possibly more so than pure AI. It integrates the unique abilities of human beings that cannot be replicated by AI. Large-scale IoT problems often cannot be solved by either computers or human beings alone. Therefore, there are significant opportunities in IoT applications that are coupled with the notion of Augmented Intelligence. Managers need to consider carefully for which task, in which way and to what extent IoT applications will be applied. They must make their choices based on the expected performance, cost and risk of autonomous IoT solutions that would operate without human oversight. For example, automated manufacturing, predictive maintenance and security IoT solutions may be cautiously fully automated. However, human-oriented applications, such as smart retail, could still maintain a certain level of human oversight.

Open access

Larry Downes

Abstract

The pressure of delivering products in hyper-competitive markets often leads developers to ignore basic data management precautions, along with a failure to devote adequate resources to marketing. To assure that short-term errors don’t cause long-term damage for the IoT, developers must adopt new strategies. Converging on a single IoT standard could foster adoption as well as better security protocols. To handle the sheer number of connected items and their need for constant interaction demands investments in high-performance networks. For IoT products to integrate deeply into consumers’ daily lives, applications must be integrated into existing solutions from trusted brands. Finally, they must do more than simply replace existing and still-working items, but add new functions and new applications that existing technology can’t possibly duplicate.

Open access

Donna L. Hoffman and Thomas P. Novak