Present article places in the center of attention finance as a science, which examines all relations of distributive and redistributive nature between different economic actors related to the formation and use of monetary resources and funds. Finance has a relatively long history of development, with ongoing substantial transformation. The results of generalization of related studies show that there are three periods in the genesis of finance as a science. First is the scientific status. Second - is related to the transition to the scientific process. The third is the scientific or rational. The fourth period is related to the formation of the neoclassical theory of finance. This transformation takes place so far under the influence of a new factor related to the establishment of the post industrial type economy. Equally important was the process of internationalization and then - of globalization. Last has a double impact. On one side, there is the consolidation of the financial system scientifically accepted as the single global vision on different areas of financial sciences. From the other hand, there is the process of adaptation and development of scientific concepts under the influence of new financial and economic conditions imposed by the superlative form related to globalization. The development of the financial sciences is also related to the need to solve a large complex of important problems of a financial nature, which will ultimately lead to the change of the global financial picture.
Subject and purpose of work: Integrated fare to date is essential for the efficient functioning of city transport services and for the involvement of citizens to shift from private to public transport. Implementation of this kind is a necessary component of the future development of the city in the direction of smart mobility.
Materials and methods: The research focuses on evaluating the barriers and challenges towards the implementation of an integrated fare in Ukraine, mainly using the city of Kyiv as a case study.
Results: The article analyzes early attempts to introduce an integrated fare, problems in the way of implementation and, basically, the experience of the EU cities, which may later be adopted. Next, it outlines some critical aspects in the relationship between government policy, city authorities, transport operators and city residents in the context of the introduction of an integrated fare.
Conclusions: The study highlights such priority challenges as legal, organizational, technical and social.
Subject and purpose of work: The objective of the study is to characterise the status and nature of local authorities’ relations with local communities and to assess the importance of local relations in the process of strengthening local innovation.
Materials and methods: The survey method was employed in the research and a questionnaire was sent to heads of communes /mayors via electronic means. The research material consisted of 105 questionnaire forms.
Results: There is a perceived imbalance in the development of interactions with social and economic actors to the disadvantage of interactions with economic sector representatives. Increasing local innovation rooted in the economic dimension of the development processes of the analysed local systems has been revealed to be of a relatively lesser importance. Local Action Groups are a major contributor to the development and innovation process, mainly in the social dimension. Local relations are not perceived by the representatives of local authorities as particularly important factors of regional innovation.
Conclusions: The analysis of the local systems revealed a need to increase the scale of activity of local government representatives as part of developing relations with the economic sector. Opportunities should be sought arising from building local partnerships aimed at the implementation of pro-innovative, multi-stakeholder projects, which will have a greater capacity to influence local development processes.
The first purpose of the university system is to deliver qualitative education through solid didactics/educational, but not many university structures seem really interested in the subject.
Sets of laws, measures, rules, and prescriptions of all kinds are in fact relegating it to a corner, making it less and less central and effective while also increasing the difficult to decipher, update and innovate it.
As a matter of fact, the issue of modernization of teaching methods has been tackled decisively by the European Commission, which has placed it among the priorities of its agenda. By acting in this way, EU is manifesting the conviction that a better quality for higher education will determine a growth in development and competitiveness not only for the Union itself but also for the individual universities that will define a strategy to improve the level of their teaching and learning and to give equal importance to research and teaching.
In its report on the theme of modernization and quality of teaching and learning, the European Commission summarizes its conclusions in 16 recommendations, including:
- the need for adequate teaching training for teachers;
- the need for the merits of teachers who make a significant contribution to improving teaching and learning methods to be recognized and rewarded.
But in order to achieve such quality prospects, it is necessary for university teachers to combine the knowledge of their discipline with specific communicative, cognitive and, more generally, relational skills. All this must become a principle of the university teaching of the future.
However, on a practical level, it is not uncommon to meet teachers who are not sufficiently attentive to these dimensions of the teaching-learning dynamic, failing to identify the “language” capable of transferring their theoretical/practical knowledge in the function of real learning of the student.
Martynenko Elena Viktorovna and Parkhitko Nickolay Petrovich
The development of the lifelong education system is one of the most important areas of educational activity, which implies the continuity of processes in the systems of preschool, general secondary, primary, secondary, higher, postgraduate and additional professional education. The effectiveness and the possibility of educational activities are determined by the interconnections between the various stages of the innovation cycle, producers and consumers of services; firms, market, government and other social partners. Continuing education can be seen as part of a lifelong learning concept. Continuing education is not just a pedagogical system, characterized by certain structural features, functional relationships and teaching technologies, but also a specific component of the whole society. It becomes continuous, connected with life, and not just final, prescribed to a person during his studies at school, secondary school or university. The development of the lifelong education system allows creating all the necessary conditions to ensure the response of the education system to the dynamically changing needs of the individual, society, and the economy. In addition, many scientists note that the continuing education system plays an important role in the formation of personnel for the innovative development of Russian regions. The development of the lifelong education system is aimed at supporting the competent development of the individual, at implementing the concept of developing education. A competency-based approach to education creates all the necessary conditions for the diverse development of the individual, the formation of competencies and personal qualities that allow effective action in various life situations. The concept of lifelong education is based on the principles of continuity, flexibility, fast dynamics associated with changing needs in the labor market, for the implementation of education “not FOR life, but THROUGH life”. The article is devoted to the problem of implementation of continuing education in Russia and its impact on the quality of education in our country.
Jarosław Żbikowski, Agnieszka Siedlecka and Marek Kuźmicki
Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the conducted research and analyzes was the attempt to assess the impact of selected factors over tourist activity of people with disabilities and factors related to the immediate environment of people with disabilities
Materials and methods: A total of 5 000 respondents were subjected to the quantitative research. Participants of the research were adults with legally recognized disabilities. In the research, there was used the method of a diagnostic survey.
Results: Tourist activity of disabled people living in rural areas in Poland concerns only about 50% of respondents. Leaving the place of permanent residence in a free time is the most often declared by young and middle-aged people with higher, secondary and post-secondary education, professionally active, married people with mental and sensory disabilities.
Conclusions: Factors stimulating participation in tourism are the level of education and professional activity of respondents. In the assessment of respondents the important factor is also a general family situation.
The mobility of people is an important theme of geographical research because immigrant currents profoundly transform regional models, mainly urban areas, configuring themselves as a factor of social destabilization, as they change the composition of the population, triggering processes of mutual cultural contamination that are projected on the territory, differentiating it from its geographical surroundings. The contribution, starting from a look at international migration, intends to analyze different aspects related to the phenomenon of mobility such as globalization, sustainability and the role of International Cooperation in the light of the objectives of Agenda 2030 for sustainable development, challenges that concern not only the present, but especially the future.
Henry Kusumas Karyadinata, Muhammad Pudjihardjo, Asfi Manzilati and Wildan Syafitri
Subject and purpose of work: This research was conducted to measure the influence of the Suramadu Bridge on the reduction of rural poverty and to determine the impact of production factors such as physical capital, natural capital, human capital and financial capital on poverty before and after the Suramadu Bridge began operating in Kabupaten Bangkalan.
Materials and methods: This study adapted the model used by Nashwari et al (2017) which was analysed applying Ordinary Least Square (OLS). The data from Village Potential 2007 and 2017 was used in the research.
Results: Many production factors in the village did not have a significant effect on the poverty reduction before the Suramadu Bridge began operating. After the Suramadu Bridge opened, it has had a significant negative impact on poverty. The number of farmers, rice fields, non-agricultural activities, superior products, skills facilities and credit facilities has a significant positive effect on the reduction of the poverty level.
Conclusions: The existence of the Suramadu Bridge has increased the influence of production factors in the villages on the poverty reduction in Kabupaten Bangkalan.
Higher education in the Republic of Moldova faces many challenges: the reduction of the student body, low levels of financing, as well as the requirement of alignment to the European standards of higher education. The internationalization of the education process can lead to the settlement of these issues and it is also an important tool in academic development, fulfilling the needs of the medium and allowing the adjustment to the existing quality standards on an institutional and national level. This paper aims at analyzing the current stage reached by institutions in the internationalization process, describing the actualities and outlining the prospects
Nowadays, Iranian foreign policy is developing following a defensive line along three axes: nuclear energy, respect of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Peace in the Middle East. This paper analyzes the strategical role of Iran in reaction to the new Trump policies. There is international apprehension about the issue of nuclear weapons, a matter that reflects an alarming situation that could lead to the opening of a new war front.