Although perceived value is considered essential in any marketing activity, the role it plays regarding the relationship between perceived risk and loyalty in the context of organizational markets is not thoroughly considered. Therefore, this paper addresses the aforementioned issues in the context of the small and medium size enterprise market in Romania. From a sample of 229 entities, data were collected and analysed using structural equation modelling techniques. Results confirmed that different relationships are established between functional or financial risk and emotional value on the one hand, and emotional value and loyalty on the other hand. Discussions of the results integrate main findings with other studies that partially or tangentially study the connections between emotional value, risk and loyalty. The paper end with a brief limitations and avenues for future research.
The main aim of the study is to establish the effects of online unpaid reviews posted by internet celebrities (renowned vloggers) on audience’s purchase intention, product recommendation and engagement on the platform. The empirical research conducted for this purpose revealed that audience’s attitude towards the vlogger is positively affected by the perceived attributes of the vlogger - trustworthiness, expertise and attractiveness. Further, the attitudes towards the vlogger reflect on the attitudes towards the reviewed product, and both have positive effects on the purchase intention, product recommendations and actions on Youtube. Despite being influenced by the attitudes towards the vlogger and the product, the attitudes towards the video content don’t have a significant impact on audience’s intentions. Additional multi-group analysis showed significant differences based on audience’s gender and their familiarity with the vlogger.
The use of celebrities for endorsement activities is a well established part of the marketing communication strategy. Yet, the communication “playground” is changing as we witness significant changes in the channels used for information transmission (as digital dominate the traditional) and in the audience (as generations change, growing up in a digital world). More, removing the communications’ constraints of space and time, the Internet led to the emergence of a new type of celebrity that seems to surpass the traditional ones. In this context, research in the celebrities’ endorsement area is still of significant relevance. Although many studies focused on investigating the effect of celebrity endorsement over consumer attitudes and behaviour, only few examined how audience factors influence these relationships. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to establish the variations in attitudes towards celebrities endorsed advertisements, considering the consumers’ age, gender, income and celebrity-product fit importance. The findings revealed significant differences in attitudes based on consumers’ age, income and product-celebrity fit importance, yet no distinctiveness in case of gender.
According to Stakeholders Theory, we believe that the companies’ will to communicate about their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) actions, can be fed by their stakeholders’ influence. Hence, we aim through this study to know the extent to which the local citizens of Annaba, as external stakeholders, influence Fertial’s CSR communication. To fulfil this purpose, we have used an online survey in order to collect quantitative data from residents of Annaba. Results show that locals have high expectations regarding Fertial’s environmental and social information. Nevertheless, they do not have serious influence on Fertial’s CSR communication, because they do not exert impactful pressures to incite this company to communicate more about its CSR engagements.
Creative tourism is a current topic, yet most of the research is focused on the urban context, with few articles focusing on how creativity can be used and developed in the setting of rural tourism. Furthermore, the theoretical elements identified in this article can become checkpoints through which better strategies for sustainable rural tourism can be developed in the future. Although rich in culture, Romanian villages have not developed their rural tourism offer to its full potential, partly because of the lack of involvement of the local community in long-term tourism planning and development, but also due to the changes in what tourists want from their tourism experience. In response to shifting patterns in consumer behavior, creative tourism has emerged as a better form of cultural tourism, but mostly in urban areas, which has led to a proliferation of creative industries and people within that specific context. The study proposes that most Romanian rural communities in areas pertaining to tourism already have local individuals with some of the characteristics of the creative people necessary for the development of creative tourism. By involving the entire local community in tourism planning, and not just the local actors with direct ties to it, Romanian rural tourism can be revitalized.
In an online environment the customer relies heavily on cues that indicate that an electronic vendor (e-vendor), can be trusted (especially in comparison with an offline shopping environment). Several studies investigated the factors that reduce mistrust in an online environment. However, little is known about the effects of colour on the process of establishing trust between e-vendor and consumer, and purchase intention. The current body of studies on the effects of, specifically, the colour blue on trust in an online environment also show contrasting results. Further, the literature review revealed that (value) variations of colours have different effects on human behaviour, or perception. It was also argued that the effect of blue on trust and behaviour would be greater for people from cultures that are generally more risk averse. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the effect of two different values of blue (i.e. lighter and darker valued) on trust and the intention to book an accommodation, differentiated by culture. In an online experiment 91 Chinese and 125 Dutch respondents (average age 27 years) were presented with an accommodation offer displayed within either a predominantly darker, or lighter valued blue environment. The results showed an indirect (mediating) effect of trust on the relationship between the predominantly darker coloured blue environment and booking intention. There was no evidence for the hypothesized moderating effect of culture. To conclude, this study contributes to a better understanding of the effects of (value) variations of colour in an online environment on human behaviour, and perception. The use of dark blue colour schemes in an online environment can be recommended to e-vendors. Especially in online environments in which the customer is more involved (e.g. financially) or vulnerable in the (purchasing) process, and thus more cues are needed to win a visitor’s trust.
This case discusses about a restaurant named ‘Spicy Chicken’ shares a common boundary with a university. This university, known as East West University is recognized as a well-established and renowned brand for more than a decade. Recently it has relocated to a new campus, in a new location on the other side of the city, an un-established area known as ‘Aftab Nagar’. Unfortunately, ‘Aftab Nagar’ lacks the usual urban norm; unlike the rest of Dhaka city. To cater the daily meal including breakfast, lunch and dinner for a student crowd of ten thousand along with the hundreds of faculty members and university staffs as well as the neighborhood, the restaurant came into operation; keeping the university in its eyes solely as the prime target market. In spite of being the first-mover in the local market the restaurant could not utilize the opportunity. The authors, have attempted to explore the case of Spicy Chicken in light of service failure and recovery theory. The major finding of this study propose that Spicy Chicken lost its market opportunities due to a multitude of reasons consisting core service failure, process failure and unfairness perceived due to distributive justice and interactional justice.
This paper examines the way in which social marketing can be developed in public health and provides a set of practical instruments in this regard. Social marketing is an important tool in generating behavioural change and its usefulness in public health was proved by previous studies. However, it is still overlooked by many public health specialists, mainly because they lack basic instruments in this regard, especially knowledge and technical support. This study provides an opportunity to advance the implementation of social marketing and it priorly addresses to: national authorities in developing public health policies and strategies, medical curriculum developers, teachers, project managers and team members of health promotion programs. The research is interdisciplinary, applicative, descriptive, with a qualitative approach, based on logical-deductive reasoning. The novelty of the paper is expressed by the proposed total framework of implementing social marketing in public health, that comprises three dimensions: political, training and collaborative. The political dimension implies a unified application of the concept at the national level through specific strategies and encouraging program developers to use marketing techniques in influencing health behaviour. The training dimension implies courses provided at different levels and stages of training: students, master students, specialists. The collaborative dimension requires the creation of joint teams and clear distribution of roles for each member, of which at least one should be a specialist in social marketing. According to these three dimensions, the study describes three instruments (a guide, a curriculum and a sketch of the team) that were created for developing social marketing in public health in countries like the Republic of Moldova, where the concept is still not widely known and accepted. This study tends to give support for researchers in promoting social marketing techniques.
The aim of the paper is to provide a conceptual theoretical framework of the integration of the theories and models of behavioural change in the marketing mix of the social marketing programs applied in public health. A second purpose is to highlight the benefits of social marketing over alternative techniques used in programs that are designed to influence health behaviour. The research is a conceptual one, that uses both theoretical (through examination of theories and concepts) and applied approaches (through examination of particular cases and examples). In the specialized literature there are presented multiple models/theories of behavioural change, but their specific application in the marketing mix of the social marketing programs is insufficiently described. The need to use these theories in the public health sector arises from the extended application of social marketing in this field and the specificity of the domain. Eight main theories of behaviour change were studied according to their purpose, variables (possibility of segmentation) and limits. Accordingly, the study presents how these theories can be integrated in the process of social marketing implementation in defining the marketing mix strategy. In this regard, it is important to underline the advantages of using social marketing (in contrast to alternative techniques like PRECEDE/PROCEED or the ecological models), namely: it is based on consumer orientation, uses marketing research, creates attractive exchanges, considers competition, uses the marketing mix, ensures management of the processes. In addition, some elements of the alternative techniques can be taken over in the application of social marketing. Social marketing is a very useful practical tool, but it needs a well-grounded theoretical support in order to gain ground in front of other similar theories. This paper tends to enhance the theoretical tools available for researchers and practitioners.
This is an exploratory study, it seeks to understand internationalization of a business group as a process of sense-making on the individual level. The focus of the enquiry is a Japanese shipping group, bulk cargo segment and seeks to answer the question how a network’s administrative heritage enables and/or inhibits the performance of relationship management processes in the context of multiple embeddedness and internationalization. The study finds, that the industry at large and the Japanese Business Group (JBG) as institutions act as enablers for the effective management of existing relationships worldwide by delegating action to the field through standardized processes and shared understandings. As for identifying and developing new relational opportunities, JBG as an institution inhibits coordination and sensemaking capabilities by its strict vertical power hierarchy and a concentration of authority and resources in headquarters.