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Food Preference of Oryzaephilus Surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) to Different Types of Plant Products

Abstract

Oryzaephilus surinamensis is one of the stored product insect that commonly found in Malaysia. The biological study through host range or food preferences of O. surinamensis is important for the development of sustainable management practice to control its infestation. The objective of this study was to identify the food preference of O. surinamensis to different plant products in relation to food type and moisture content. Twenty adult of O. surinamensis were exposed to three different group of food; dried fruits (date, raisin, apricot, fig), grain/cereals (rice, barley, oat grout, dried maize), and nuts (almond, ground nut, walnut, cashew nut) for 240h in laboratory Kulliyyah of Science, IIUM Kuantan. Moisture content in each food was also measured. It was found out that the most preferred food by O. surinamensis is oat groat of cereal grain group with medium level of moisture content. Further analysis on food moisture suggested that under current experimental conditions (temperature of 27℃ and 64% relative humidity within 240h of exposure), food moisture content does not affect pest infestation and distribution.

Open access
Morphological characterization of garlic (Allium sativum L.) germplasm

Abstract

A total of 25 garlic (Allium sativum L.) germplasm were collected from different location of Bangladesh and also from different countries of the world. Each germplasm was planted in each plot of 1m2 at the Allium Field Laboratory, Horticulture Farm, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. This study was conducted during October, 2010 to March, 2011 in the field, using randomized complete block design with three replications. All germplasm were characterized on number of leaves, height of plant, leaf length, fresh weight of leaf, dry weight of leaf, number of cloves per bulb, length and diameter of bulb, fresh weight of bulb, dry weight of bulb, yield per plot and yield per hectare. Analyses of variances showed that garlic germplasm with different origins were significantly different for all characters. Different germplasm resulted better performances but germplasm G49 from Vietnam gave the highest results in respect of number of leaves per plant (10.63), leaf length (43.57 cm), fresh leaf weight (92.47g), dry leaf weight (6.13g), fresh weight of bulb (21.37g), total number of cloves per bulb (42.13), bulb diameter (4.13cm), fresh weight of bulb (21.37g), dry weight of bulb (5.73g) and yield (9.83 t/ha) which could help future researchers in garlic selection program and improvement of yield.

Open access
Evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis via alcoholic fermentation of corn flour

Abstract

The research was concerned with the enzymatic hydrolysis followed by alcoholic fermentation of corn flour. Commercial corn flour purchased from local market contained starch of 87.25%, moisture 11.86% and ash 0.70%. The kinetics of corn flour hydrolysis was performed at 50°C, 65°C and 80°C using commercial thermos table-∞-amylase and ∞-amyloglucosidase. During hydrolysis the residual starch content was decreased with increasing hydrolysis time. The line weaver-Burk plot for enzyme hydrolysis of corn starch for 2.5%, 5% and 10% flour solution showed a Km value of 2.46, 2.27 and 1.73 mg/ml and Vmax values 1.23, 1.21 and 0.96 U/ml for 50°C, 65°C and 80°C respectively. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to detect the presence of dextrose in the hydrolyzates. The Rf (Retention factors) values showed that the starch was mainly composed of dextrose and depended on carrier solvent use for dextrose assessment. When 100% ethyl alcohol used as carrier solvent the Rf value was 0.72 and ethyl alcohol: ethyl acetate= 1:1 the Rf value was 0.65. Both corn flour solution and its enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with commercial baker’s yeast. Both the cases starch content was decreased and alcohol content was increased during hydrolysis and alcohol production was 3 times more from hydrolysates. The results obtained here will be useful for further research in the production of other value added products like white vinegar from the produced alcohol from con flour.

Open access
Response of Maize Varieties to Sowing Dates in Inner Terai Region, Dang, Nepal

Abstract

Sowing dates and varieties affect the productivity of maize. A field experiment was conducted to find out the response of maize hybrids to sowing dates on growth and productivity of maize in spring season at Lamahi, Dang in 2019. The experiment was laid out in two factor factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The treatment consisted of combination of three different sowing dates (February 1, February12 and February 23) and two maize varieties (Arun-2 i.e. OPV and hybrid Bioseed-9220).The result revealed that earlier planting on February 1 produced the highest yield (8265 Kg ha-1) which was significantly superior than latter planting of February 12(6099 kg ha-1)and February 23 (5934 kg ha-1).The higher yield in earlier planting was due to significantly higher no of kernel per ear, non-significant but higher number of cob per unit area, thousand grain weight. Similarly, Bioseed 9220 produced higher yield (7798 kg ha-1) compared to Arun-2 (5,734 kg ha-1). The higher yield of hybrid Bioseed 9220 was because of higher number of cob per unit area harvested and more number of kernel per cob. Therefore, earlier planting with hybrid maize is recommended in spring season of Dang and locations with similar climatic conditions for higher productivity of maize.

Open access
Significance of Nutritional Value of Fish for Human Health

Abstract

Nutrients are the substances which give nourishment to the body and promote growth. These nutrients are present in varieties of foods in various amounts. Fish is a source of aquatic food which can both be farmed and wild caught. Fish is rich in macronutrients: proteins, lipids and ash and micronutrients: vitamins and minerals. Proteins in the fish have immunoglobins that acts as defense mechanism against viral and bacterial infections and prevent protein calorie malnutrition. Lipids mainly LC n-3 PUFAs like EPA and DHA prevents cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and maintains blood pressure and neuro-development in child. Selenium is important for the function of thyroid gland. Iron helps in synthesis of hemoglobin and prevents the occurrence of anemia. Calcium and vitamin D naturally present in fish prevents rickets, low bone-mineral density and osteomalacia. Vitamin A in fish helps in normal growth, formation of bones and teeth. Despite these importances’s, fish is still undervalued and less consumed compared to other animal protein sources due to lack of awareness. If the per capita consumption of the fish can be increased, then people can have many health benefits. People should be made known about the health benefits of fish. Many other researches should be conducted to make the nutritional value of fish known to the world.

Open access
Dragon Fruit in Nepal

Abstract

Dragon fruit is a cactus species which is indigenous to Americas belongs to Genus Hylocereus. Dragon fruit is commonly known as Noble woman, Pitahaya, strawberry pear, Super fruit etc. It has antioxidant properties which prevents oxidation of cholesterol. Similarly, dragon fruit contains phytonutrient, minerals and vitamins which are beneficial to blood, tissue, bone and overall health. On research it was found out that Lycopene which is responsible for red colour in dragon fruit has been linked with a lower prostate cancer risk. Nowadays it is widely used in restaurant as fruit salad, refreshing drinks, Jams, Ice creams, Jelly, fruit juice, wine etc. In Nepal, Mr. Jagannath Rai brought dragon fruit from USA in 2057 B.S. and later Gorkha Millenium multipurpose cooperatives ltd formally started cultivation of dragon fruit in commercial level from 2070 B.S (2013 A.D). In Nepal there is a wide scope for cultivation as it can cultivate in region of less rainfall at altitude of 1500 from MASL. Availability of Fallow and marginal lands of Terai, Bhitri madhes, valleys and lower range of mountain are suitable for cultivation. Moreover, there are great possibilities of production of organic dragon fruits. Inspite of various benefits and possibilities, farmers’ condition and investment are major challenges for exploration of dragon fruit in Nepal.

Open access
In vitro Callus induction of aromatic rice depends on the concentration of 2, 4-D

Abstract

Due to growing population, there is an increasing demand of rice production but its productivity is lessened day by day. Aromatic rice has a great demand during festivals in many countries. Kalijira is one of them not only Bangladesh but also all over the world due to its attractive flavor, fine grain and good taste which is generally used to prepare dishes in different special occasions. But there are some limitations to cultivate aromatic rice Such as lack of high yielding variety, fine grain quality, disease or pest resistant, stress and salt tolerance variety and proper cultural management. To overcome this problem tissue culture can be used. However, the lack of a simple and efficient protocol for callus induction in this cereal crop. In this study we tried to find out the potentiality of aromatic rice variety named kalijira for callus induction from mature embryo and to find out the suitable concentration of 2, 4-D for callus induction and proliferation. The highest callus induction were observed when the media was supplemented with 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D and the frequency of callus induction was lowest in 0.5 mg/L concentration of 2, 4-D. This study will be useful for selecting suitable concentration of growth regulator (2, 4-D) for callus induction in future that will be useful for not only national but also international plant breeders.

Open access
Natural product like “shikonin” might be a hope for Breast cancer cure

Abstract

Among all cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women and the second most common cancer overall, both in the developed and less developed country. It is a matter of concern worldwide, that there is no effective drug is available for cancer treatment. Although, Surgery, radiation, hormonal (anti-estrogen) therapy, and chemotherapy are being used for treatment of breast cancer in recent years, due to life threatening side effects, these treatment approaches becoming more vulnerable. However, researchers from across the world searching a safe and effective treatment approach that can be a breakthrough for this situation, as it is evident that natural compounds like shikonin from Lithospermum erythrorhizon can fight against aggressiveness of breast cancer by regulating apoptosis, necroptosis and estrogen receptor signaling pathway. In this review, we discussed about potential green chemical compounds with their mechanisms of actions, which can be very effective treatment regimen for breast cancer and can be more potent by their proper modifications and further molecular research. Hopefully in future, research focusing on the “shikonin” will open a new door for increasing the survival rate of breast cancer patients as well as cancer cure.

Open access
Optimization of fermentation condition for cellulase enzyme production from Bacillus sp.

Abstract

Cellulase is an important enzyme in present-day of industrial biotechnology. The current study is concerned with the production and partial characterization of cellulase enzyme from Bacillus sp. The effect of various fermentation conditions for cellulase production through shake-flask culture was investigated. Maximum enzyme production was obtained after 24 hours of incubation in fermentation medium with pH 3.5 at 35°C under having agitation at 150 rpm while inoculums volume 1% was applied. Enzyme production was 1.91 times higher after optimizing the production condition as compared to the basal media. Cellulase characterization revealed that optimum activity was at pH 5.5 and 50°C for 50 minutes. About 68% of the activity retained after heating the crude enzyme solution at 50°C for 30 minutes. This nature makes cellulase a suitable candidate for current mainstream biomass conversions for sustainable agriculture and industrial processes.

Open access
Transplanting date adjustment in Boro rice cultivation as a strategy to reduce groundwater withdrawal in Bangladesh

Abstract

Due to intensive irrigated rice cultivation during dry season, declining trend of groundwater level is observed in many parts of Bangladesh. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at four experimental stations of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Bangladesh to evaluate the performance of some Boro rice cultivars in different planting dates with respect to yield and irrigation water requirement, and to optimize between yield and irrigation water requirement, with a view to reduce groundwater withdrawal and hence reducing mining of groundwater. The transplanting dates were 21th January (T1), 15th February (T2), 7th March and 30th March. Four rice cultivars were used. The results showed that the rice growth period was shortened with the later dates of transplanting. Generally, the yield of all cultivars at first and second transplanting (i.e. in T1 & T2) are good, and decrease at the later transplanting dates (T3, T4) and hence could not be recommended among farmers. When we consider the irrigation savings in T2 compare to T1, the irrigation savings varies with location and year, but the general tendency is that the second transplanting can save irrigation water. By considering economic (intrusion of additional rabi crop between two rice crops) and ecological factor (irrigation reduction, and hence reducing groundwater withdrawal), we recommend that the most suitable transplanting time for Boro rice should be 15th February. As such, we can effectively achieve good yield, reduce irrigation requirement, and creating opportunity for possible intrusion of addition Rabi crop between two rice crops. Overall, the findings of the present study can provide effective transplanting time and cultivar to reduce groundwater withdrawal in the present agro-ecosystem of northwestern Bangladesh and other similar areas.

Open access