Present article places in the center of attention finance as a science, which examines all relations of distributive and redistributive nature between different economic actors related to the formation and use of monetary resources and funds. Finance has a relatively long history of development, with ongoing substantial transformation. The results of generalization of related studies show that there are three periods in the genesis of finance as a science. First is the scientific status. Second - is related to the transition to the scientific process. The third is the scientific or rational. The fourth period is related to the formation of the neoclassical theory of finance. This transformation takes place so far under the influence of a new factor related to the establishment of the post industrial type economy. Equally important was the process of internationalization and then - of globalization. Last has a double impact. On one side, there is the consolidation of the financial system scientifically accepted as the single global vision on different areas of financial sciences. From the other hand, there is the process of adaptation and development of scientific concepts under the influence of new financial and economic conditions imposed by the superlative form related to globalization. The development of the financial sciences is also related to the need to solve a large complex of important problems of a financial nature, which will ultimately lead to the change of the global financial picture.
Subject and purpose of work: Integrated fare to date is essential for the efficient functioning of city transport services and for the involvement of citizens to shift from private to public transport. Implementation of this kind is a necessary component of the future development of the city in the direction of smart mobility.
Materials and methods: The research focuses on evaluating the barriers and challenges towards the implementation of an integrated fare in Ukraine, mainly using the city of Kyiv as a case study.
Results: The article analyzes early attempts to introduce an integrated fare, problems in the way of implementation and, basically, the experience of the EU cities, which may later be adopted. Next, it outlines some critical aspects in the relationship between government policy, city authorities, transport operators and city residents in the context of the introduction of an integrated fare.
Conclusions: The study highlights such priority challenges as legal, organizational, technical and social.
Jakub Trojan, Sven Schade, Rob Lemmens and Bohumil Frantál
Issues related to the evolving role of citizen science and open science are reviewed and discussed in this article. We focus on the changing approaches to science, research and development related to the turn to openness and transparency, which has made science more open and inclusive, even for non-researchers. Reproducible and collaborative research, which is driven by the open access principles, involves citizens in many research fields. The article shows how international support is pushing citizen science forward, and how citizens’ involvement is becoming more important. A basic scientometric analysis (based on the Web of Science Core Collection as the source of peer reviewed articles) provides a first insight into the diffusion of the citizen science concept in the field of Geography, mapping the growth of citizen science articles over time, the spectrum of geographical journals that publish them, and their citation rate compared to other scientific disciplines. The authors also discuss future challenges of citizen science and its potential, which for the time being seems to be not fully utilized in some fields, including geographical research.
Subject and purpose of work: The objective of the study is to characterise the status and nature of local authorities’ relations with local communities and to assess the importance of local relations in the process of strengthening local innovation.
Materials and methods: The survey method was employed in the research and a questionnaire was sent to heads of communes /mayors via electronic means. The research material consisted of 105 questionnaire forms.
Results: There is a perceived imbalance in the development of interactions with social and economic actors to the disadvantage of interactions with economic sector representatives. Increasing local innovation rooted in the economic dimension of the development processes of the analysed local systems has been revealed to be of a relatively lesser importance. Local Action Groups are a major contributor to the development and innovation process, mainly in the social dimension. Local relations are not perceived by the representatives of local authorities as particularly important factors of regional innovation.
Conclusions: The analysis of the local systems revealed a need to increase the scale of activity of local government representatives as part of developing relations with the economic sector. Opportunities should be sought arising from building local partnerships aimed at the implementation of pro-innovative, multi-stakeholder projects, which will have a greater capacity to influence local development processes.
The first purpose of the university system is to deliver qualitative education through solid didactics/educational, but not many university structures seem really interested in the subject.
Sets of laws, measures, rules, and prescriptions of all kinds are in fact relegating it to a corner, making it less and less central and effective while also increasing the difficult to decipher, update and innovate it.
As a matter of fact, the issue of modernization of teaching methods has been tackled decisively by the European Commission, which has placed it among the priorities of its agenda. By acting in this way, EU is manifesting the conviction that a better quality for higher education will determine a growth in development and competitiveness not only for the Union itself but also for the individual universities that will define a strategy to improve the level of their teaching and learning and to give equal importance to research and teaching.
In its report on the theme of modernization and quality of teaching and learning, the European Commission summarizes its conclusions in 16 recommendations, including:
- the need for adequate teaching training for teachers;
- the need for the merits of teachers who make a significant contribution to improving teaching and learning methods to be recognized and rewarded.
But in order to achieve such quality prospects, it is necessary for university teachers to combine the knowledge of their discipline with specific communicative, cognitive and, more generally, relational skills. All this must become a principle of the university teaching of the future.
However, on a practical level, it is not uncommon to meet teachers who are not sufficiently attentive to these dimensions of the teaching-learning dynamic, failing to identify the “language” capable of transferring their theoretical/practical knowledge in the function of real learning of the student.
River landscapes represent key areas of great importance to human society as they perform many functions and provide valuable services. Traditionally, these areas have been perceived as geomorphological phenomena characterised by specific soil conditions, hydrological regimes and unique habitats. Due to the availability of detailed data, it is possible to perform a spatial delineation of river landscapes by interpreting these data using several different approaches. The results of these different approaches can vary considerably, since it is particularly challenging to define the river landscape along small watercourses for which the availability of suitable data is limited. The main aim of this study is to analyse the various methodological approaches that may be used to define the river landscapes of small streams, and to evaluate the efficiency of those approaches that can be applied in nature and landscape conservation. Two medium-sized catchments in the Czech Republic were selected as the study areas in order to ensure different natural conditions and degrees of anthropogenic pressure. As a result, an approach based on combining soil characteristics and topographic information is considered the most appropriate solution to delineate the river ecosystem.
Martynenko Elena Viktorovna and Parkhitko Nickolay Petrovich
The development of the lifelong education system is one of the most important areas of educational activity, which implies the continuity of processes in the systems of preschool, general secondary, primary, secondary, higher, postgraduate and additional professional education. The effectiveness and the possibility of educational activities are determined by the interconnections between the various stages of the innovation cycle, producers and consumers of services; firms, market, government and other social partners. Continuing education can be seen as part of a lifelong learning concept. Continuing education is not just a pedagogical system, characterized by certain structural features, functional relationships and teaching technologies, but also a specific component of the whole society. It becomes continuous, connected with life, and not just final, prescribed to a person during his studies at school, secondary school or university. The development of the lifelong education system allows creating all the necessary conditions to ensure the response of the education system to the dynamically changing needs of the individual, society, and the economy. In addition, many scientists note that the continuing education system plays an important role in the formation of personnel for the innovative development of Russian regions. The development of the lifelong education system is aimed at supporting the competent development of the individual, at implementing the concept of developing education. A competency-based approach to education creates all the necessary conditions for the diverse development of the individual, the formation of competencies and personal qualities that allow effective action in various life situations. The concept of lifelong education is based on the principles of continuity, flexibility, fast dynamics associated with changing needs in the labor market, for the implementation of education “not FOR life, but THROUGH life”. The article is devoted to the problem of implementation of continuing education in Russia and its impact on the quality of education in our country.
Orchard meadows are appreciated as an integrated land use of high cultural and biological value. While such meadows are typical habitats for temperate Europe, they experienced a decline in their total area during the second half of the 20th century, both in Western and Eastern Europe. In this contribution, we compare their current area and status in terms of semantics, law, public support in general, and the efficiency of public support in both Saxony and the Czech Republic. We estimated the area in Saxony on the basis of three public mapping projects. In the Czech Republic, where no recent mapping included orchard meadows as a specific land-use type, we carried out our own mapping. Hence, we mapped 124 randomly selected plots of 1 km2. To cross-reference results from both countries, we used the pan-EU project LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey). According to various different sources, the orchard meadows cover 0.09–0.55% of Saxony and 0.01–0.72% of the Czech Republic. Interestingly, the results of the three mapping projects conducted in Saxony vary from each other. Although orchard meadows are supported by financial incentives of the respective governments in both countries, the Saxon approach concentrating more on individual activities (sanitation of old trees, planting, grassland management), seems more focused than the single measure practised in the Czech Republic. One key to a greater public awareness of the orchard meadow problematic can lie in the promotion of a simple expression referring to this specific landscape feature in Czech, similar to the phrase common in the German language: ‘Streuobstwiese’. Our suggestion for the Czech language is: ‘luční sad’.
Jarosław Żbikowski, Agnieszka Siedlecka and Marek Kuźmicki
Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the conducted research and analyzes was the attempt to assess the impact of selected factors over tourist activity of people with disabilities and factors related to the immediate environment of people with disabilities
Materials and methods: A total of 5 000 respondents were subjected to the quantitative research. Participants of the research were adults with legally recognized disabilities. In the research, there was used the method of a diagnostic survey.
Results: Tourist activity of disabled people living in rural areas in Poland concerns only about 50% of respondents. Leaving the place of permanent residence in a free time is the most often declared by young and middle-aged people with higher, secondary and post-secondary education, professionally active, married people with mental and sensory disabilities.
Conclusions: Factors stimulating participation in tourism are the level of education and professional activity of respondents. In the assessment of respondents the important factor is also a general family situation.
Barbora Duží, Robert Osman, Jiří Lehejček, Eva Nováková, Pavel Taraba and Jakub Trojan
Citizen science is a relatively new phenomenon in the Czech Republic and currently a general overview of existing citizen science projects is not available. This presents the challenge to uncover the ‘hidden’ citizen science landscapes. The main objective of this paper is to explore the (public) representation of citizen science (CS) projects and to describe their heterogeneity. The study aims to answer the question of what type of projects in the Czech Republic meet the definition of citizen science. Based on a specific methodological data-base search approach, we compiled a set of CS projects (N = 73). During the classification process, two general citizen science categories were identified. The first group (N = 46) consists of “pure” CS projects with a prevalence towards the natural sciences, principally ornithology, and thus corresponding to general European trends. Citizens usually participate in such research in the form of data collection and basic interpretation, and a high level of cooperation between academia and NGOs was detected. The second group of “potential” CS projects (N = 27) entails various forms of public participation in general, frequently coordinated by NGOs. Based on these results, we discuss the position of citizen science in the Czech Republic, including socially-oriented citizen science. Further research is strongly encouraged to achieve a more in-depth insight into this social phenomenon.