Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) ranks as the second most unequal region globally (in terms of income distribution), harboring 10 of the 19 most unequal countries in the world. This paper explores the channels through which income inequality exerts its effects on economic growth in SSA. The study spans the period 1995–2015, focusing on 31 SSA countries. Findings from the two-step system generalized method of moments suggest that income inequality exerts a significant positive effect on economic growth via the saving transmission channel, while it has a statistically significant negative effect on economic growth in the region through the channels of fertility, credit market imperfection, and fiscal policy.
Competitive tension refers to pressure that is considered to exist among firms operating in a competitive market and that forces them to take competitive action against each other. An imaginary upper limit of competitive tension symbolizes the difference between whether to take competitive action or not. The antecedents of competitive tension are examined in this study. Within this scope, market commonality and resource similarity are the variables studied as components of competitor analysis; market concentration that provides clues for the competitive structure of competed markets; and finally, competitive asymmetry, presuming that the competition among the companies is not equal and rivals do not consider each other at the same level as competing firms, were taken as primary variables of competitive tension. In order to test whether these variables have an effect on competitive tension among airlines, airlines operating in the domestic air transport market in Turkey were examined in this study. The perceived competitive tension that was detected as a result of regression analyses was studied on three different dimensions, namely, internal tension, external tension, and total tension, and each dimension was analyzed as a different model. The findings of the study revealed that market commonality and market concentration have a significant effect on competitive tension. These effects were found to be positive for market commonality and negative for market concentration. Resource similarity and competitive asymmetry were found to have no significant effect.
This article analyzes the institutional architecture and the level of similarity between the social protection system in 11 new EU member states from Central and Eastern Europe and chosen Western European countries, representing four different models of capitalism identified by Amable. In the selected institutional area, a comparative analysis was performed, and based on it, similarity hexagons were created. They serve the purpose of comparing Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries with Western European countries of reference. The dynamic approach adopted in this study—two different time periods were compared—allows an analysis of path dependence and the evolution of institutional architecture over time. The analysis indicates that in 2014, in the area of social protection, almost all CEE countries, apart from Latvia and Romania, were most comparable to the Continental model of capitalism represented by Germany. Nevertheless, the variety of results for the individual variables (especially input and output variables) and substantial changes between 2005 and 2014 also show that the model of capitalism prevailing in Central and Eastern Europe in the area of the social protection system is evolving constantly at a very fast pace and thus currently may be called a hybrid or even patchwork capitalism.
This article concerns the determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) outflow from India to Poland with some insights to other European countries. This topic strongly relates to globalization of foreign trade and especially new economic initiatives between European Union (EU) and India, which was one of the first countries to develop trade relations with EU. According to CEIC data – Financial Data and Economic Indicators, India’s FDI outflow increased slightly to 1.4 billion USD in September 2019 in comparison with 996.5 million USD in September 2018, but it is still below the average of 1.8 billion USD for a period of 2007–2019.1 Very limited number of the scientific research can be found in European literature about India’s FDI outflow to EU countries in period of 2004–2019. Indian economists made some research on that topic. Professor J. Ramachandran (listed among the Best Management Thinkers for the year 2015, the first Bain Fellow in India) from Indian Institute of Management Bangalore in 2004 and Professor Jaya Prakesh Pradhan from Central University of Gujarat in 2008 explored the evolution in Indian outward FDI, referring to a shift in the pattern of overseas expansion and basis of competitiveness of Indian companies. The key point of this article is to explain what really triggers Indian investors to go to Poland and what kind of businesses they form. Some examples of the Indian-based companies are mentioned to support the analysis. The author of this article also researched on different governmental bilateral trade agreements and initiatives, trying to find any direct impacts of that on the India FDI outflow to Poland and other EU countries. He used empirical method of the analysis based on accessible data and literature in that topic and also direct interviews with private Indian investors who made decision to start and run their business in Poland or other EU countries.
Labour market reforms have been undertaken to eliminate labour market rigidities in European countries since 1970s. The important features of the reforms are the reduction in adjustment costs and the introduction of fixed-term contracts (FTC). Some empirical studies point out that employment fluctuations have become more volatile after the reforms. This paper presents a model with FTC and analyzes the effects of the key features of the reforms. Numerical examples show that an expected productivity shock causes the oscillatory behaviour of employment. Moreover, a reduction in adjustment costs amplifies fluctuations. In the labour market literature, a number of studies point out the importance of trade unions in European countries. This paper also analyzes the effects of union influence, and the numerical examples indicate that the stronger union influence leads to larger employment fluctuations.
Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death worldwide. Proper estimation of car accident risk is critical for the appropriate allocation of resources in healthcare, insurance, civil engineering and other industries. We show how images of houses are predictive of car accidents. We analyse 20,000 addresses of insurance company clients, collect a corresponding house image using Google Street View and annotate house features such as age, type and condition. We find that this information substantially improves car accident risk prediction compared to the state-of-the-art risk model of the insurance company and could be used for price discrimination. From this perspective, the public availability of house images raises legal and social concerns, as they can be a proxy of ethnicity, religion and other sensitive data.
This article aims to quantify the institutional similarities between industrial relations systems in 11 Central and Eastern European countries (CEE11), on the one hand and each of the four models of capitalism in Western Europe identified by Amable , on the other hand. The comparative analysis was performed on the basis of six variables. Three of them represent inputs or institutional determinants of industrial relations. Another three variables represent outputs or the labor market performance. For each variable, the similarity coefficients between CEE11 countries and four reference EU15 economies representing Western European models of capitalism were calculated. Based on these coefficients, the hexagons of similarity were built.
The analyses led us to some general observations. In 2005, most of the countries in the region developed industrial relations systems similar to the continental model, what can be interpreted as a strategy to meet the requirements imposed on these countries in the process of European integration. After accession, most of the countries abandoned “social partnership” ship and started the cruises to the Anglo-Saxon model.
The high-technology sector has a particular importance in the development of modern national economies. It affects both the level of competitiveness and innovation. This was a prerequisite for the study to assess the competitive position of the advanced technology sector in the European Union (EU) countries. The starting point of the discussion was the definition of the concept of competitiveness, the competitive position of the advanced technology industry, and the classification of the high-tech sector. Based on the selected indicators, the competitive position and the rank of countries have been established. As for this, the indicators of the export share of the advanced technology sector in the intra-export market, the profitability of the high-tech sector, and the degree of export–import coverage were used. Based on the adopted indicators, a synthetic indicator of a competitive position has also been calculated which enabled determination of the most competitive country in the EU in reference to the industry. This enabled the identification of factors influencing the competitive position of the advanced technology sector in the EU member countries.
The purpose of this article is to examine the changes that have occurred after Poland’s integration into the European Union (EU) internal market for services after 2004 considering the legal changes adopted in the EU relating to the free movement of services, namely, the Service Directive. An examination of the Directive’s outcome and the development of the market integration process permit the conclusion that the changes in regulatory trade barriers have had a relatively limited impact on the changes that have occurred in EU–Polish ties concerning services trade. These were predominantly shaped by structural and macroeconomic factors. From an analysis of the structure of Poland’s services trade, a picture emerges of a deepening asymmetry between the exports and imports sides of Poland’s participation in the internal market.