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Assessment of Selected Physical Characteristics of the English Ryegrass (Lolium Perenne L.) Waste Biomass Briquettes

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the selected physical characteristics of the briquettes of English ryegrass waste biomass and its mixtures with waste components from the agri-food industry: pea husks and oat middlings. The raw materials used for the tests are characterized by high calorific value and low ash content. Among the tested raw materials, the most favorable values were recorded for oat middlings in this respect. The produced briquettes were characterized by high volumetric density and very diverse mechanical durability. At the same time, the results of the tests on the mechanical durability of briquettes indicated that the use of components of ryegrass mixtures selected for testing brought unsatisfactory results, as compared to other analyzed physical and energy features.

Open access
Conceptual Analysis of Test Car Body with the Use of CAD Systems

Abstract

The article presents structural specifications and conceptual analysis of the test car body equipped with a hybrid power transmission system. The test car is constructed by students of the Faculty of Technical Sciences of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. Works dedicated to designing and construction of a car body aim at the increase of safety and improvement of aesthetics of the constructed vehicle with simultaneous maintenance of its operational and test functionality. The article presents a simplified analysis of the distribution of pressure around the body for several suggested concepts and selected technologies of production of the test car body. The paper presents results of computer simulations, of the pressure distribution and the remaining aspects of assessment of the car body functionality.

Open access
Efficiency of Milking Cows Using Robot in a Large Herd

Abstract

The aim of the study was to carry out a research on the use of milking robots compared to utilization of milking parlors. There was no such study in literature on the milking farms in Poland and abroad. The presented study, except for scientific knowledge, provides also practical utilization as a good agriculture practice on the farm. Tests were carried out simultaneously in two barns belonging to the same farm. In barn K, milking was used in the rib bone milking parlor, and in barn N with milking robots. The results covering three years of research from 2016 to 2018 were presented. It was concluded that the milk yield of young cows in both barns was almost identical, while in the second and subsequent lactation, cows in barn N had higher yield. In barn N, about 3% more milk was obtained from LKS below 400 thaus. ml−1, compared to barn K. Time of cows’ utilization in both cowsheds was similar, while in barn N the life efficiency of culled cows was higher by about 1,000 kg of milk. The level of deficiency and its structure, due to the number and stage of lactation, were very similar in both barns. In barn N, the uniformity of milk production throughout the year was more even compared to barn K. There were reserves in the use of the milking robot due to the low number of cows per milking stand and the need to better adaptation of milking times to current cow performance. The milking robot improves cow welfare and ensures high milk yield and good cytological quality of milk.

Open access
Impact of Selected Mechanical Properties of Sweetcorn Seed on the Level of Cutting it Off from the Cob Stem

Abstract

Research results on the quality of work of a seed cutter for selected cultivars of sweetcorn were presented. Measurements were carried out at the rotational speed of a head of 1600 rot. min−1 and a linear velocity of the cob conveyor of 0.31 m s−1. A statistically significant relation between the degree of cutting the seed mass and the selected mechanical properties of grain were determined. Differences between cultivars at the level of approximately 43% for the force of perforation of the peri-carp Fp,

Open access
Influence of the Print Layer Height in FDM Technology on the Rolling Force Value and the Print Time

Abstract

The paper presents a method and results of breaking of samples that undergo elongation, printed in the FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) technology including various height of a layer. A method of description of the FDM print was described. A developed methodology of research was presented − it was analogous to the research on breaking steel samples. The aim of the research was investigation of the height of a single layer of print on the strength parameters of the produced object. The studies on samples printed with two types of filling were made. The obtained results were set and compared. Based on the research that was carried out, it may be concluded that the tensile strength of samples made in the FDM print technology is proportional to the thickness of a single layer of print.

Open access
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Energy Willow Cultivation on Plantations with Varied Surface Area

Abstract

The paper carries out a comparative analysis of the production technology of energy willow on plantations varied on account of the surface area in the aspect of the impact on the natural environment. The studies covered the cultivation of willow in the southern part of Poland. Technologies from soil preparation for cultivation to first harvesting and transport to a farm were analysed. A type of the applied technological treatments, used machines and transport means as well as the time of their operation, amount of the consumed fuel, pesticides, fertilizers, and water were taken into consideration. The research results were referred to the surface area of willow cultivation (1 ha). To determine the environmental impact SimaPro program version 8.1.0.60 was used. It was concluded, inter alia, that cultivation of willow on smaller plantations constitutes a bigger environmental footprint.

Open access
Methods of Research of Foil Bearings in START-STOP Cycle in the Presence of Working Medium

Abstract

A method for testing sliding bearings with an elastic bearing liner was presented in the paper with a focus on the issue of selection of particular time intervals of the START-STOP test cycle. Then, results of the tests carried out according to the selected material combinations were presented. The working cycle of foil bearings tested on the test stand was performed in an automatic mode at the set number of sequences start-work-rundown-stop. Due to the highest use of sliding bearings during start and rundown of a machine, this type of tests is essential for selection of relevant sets of material for bearing elements. The article also presents the use of a thermo-visual camera for identification of additional thermal loads and manners of temperature stabilization in the test chamber.

Open access
Parameters of the Planting Machine for Sugar Beet Sets

Abstract

For seed production of sugar and fodder beet, the creation of machines and working bodies for planting root crops on testes and pollinators is of current importance. It was found out that the seed-and-water production was spreading with the use of “schteklings” [sugar beet roots]. In the countries with minus temperatures between the vegetation seasons it is necessary to dig out beets and plant them again at the beginning of the vegetation season. Advantages and disadvantages of machines and apparatus for disembarking the schteklings were determined. Under the conditions of applicability, we chose a design scheme and a type of landing gear. With the use of mathematical expressions and standards for the labor intensity of the operator of the above machine, the optimal parameters of its planting apparatus were determined. It was determined that the work of the operator of the schteklings planting machine’s stem will meet the safety standards for the intensity of labor if the planting unit of this machine is a rotor-type. It should be equipped with planting cones and a charging device, a conveyor type. The number of holders of landing cones should be 6-8 pieces, and the radius of the rotor is within the range of 0.344 ... 0.382 m. Such a scheme, type and parameters of the landing gear will allow operators to work at the speed of the planter of up to 1.2 m·s−1.

Open access
Statitstical Analysis of Correctness of Seaming Canned Food in Food Production with the Use of Standard Control Chart

Abstract

The paper presents a study on the control of the canned fish seaming with the so-called double seam and statistical analysis of correctness of seaming. The use of standard control charts enabled observation and intervention in case irrelevant parameters occur to keep the stability of the process. Based on the analysis made in Statistica program, a moment could have been captured when a machine had to be regulated in case the value of parameters of the double seam decreased and it had to be concluded unanimously when the most important seaming tools (rolls) should be replaced. A problem that had been solved consists mainly in ensuring the stability of the process during constant monitoring of the seaming process of the canned food.

Open access
The Use of Cluster Analysis in Assessing the Sustainability of Organic Farms. Part I. Methodical Considerations

Abstract

The modern agriculture model is a model based on the principles of sustainable development, i.e. protecting the environment and the cultural landscape on the one hand, and on the other, ensuring adequate income for residents. It is based on three orders: ecological, social and economic. This paper attempts to use cluster analysis to assess the economic and ecological sustainability of organic farms. It also indicates the factors that statistically influenced the assessment of a farm as sustainable, or not. The first part of the work is dedicated to the characteristics of the problem and the methodology of research and analysis. The second part contains the results of the research and discusses them.

Open access