Oryzaephilus surinamensis is one of the stored product insect that commonly found in Malaysia. The biological study through host range or food preferences of O. surinamensis is important for the development of sustainable management practice to control its infestation. The objective of this study was to identify the food preference of O. surinamensis to different plant products in relation to food type and moisture content. Twenty adult of O. surinamensis were exposed to three different group of food; dried fruits (date, raisin, apricot, fig), grain/cereals (rice, barley, oat grout, dried maize), and nuts (almond, ground nut, walnut, cashew nut) for 240h in laboratory Kulliyyah of Science, IIUM Kuantan. Moisture content in each food was also measured. It was found out that the most preferred food by O. surinamensis is oat groat of cereal grain group with medium level of moisture content. Further analysis on food moisture suggested that under current experimental conditions (temperature of 27℃ and 64% relative humidity within 240h of exposure), food moisture content does not affect pest infestation and distribution.
Md. Salahuddin, M.A. Rahim, S.M.Jakir Bin Alam, Md. Mahfujur Rahman and Jubaidur Rahman
A total of 25 garlic (Allium sativum L.) germplasm were collected from different location of Bangladesh and also from different countries of the world. Each germplasm was planted in each plot of 1m2 at the Allium Field Laboratory, Horticulture Farm, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. This study was conducted during October, 2010 to March, 2011 in the field, using randomized complete block design with three replications. All germplasm were characterized on number of leaves, height of plant, leaf length, fresh weight of leaf, dry weight of leaf, number of cloves per bulb, length and diameter of bulb, fresh weight of bulb, dry weight of bulb, yield per plot and yield per hectare. Analyses of variances showed that garlic germplasm with different origins were significantly different for all characters. Different germplasm resulted better performances but germplasm G49 from Vietnam gave the highest results in respect of number of leaves per plant (10.63), leaf length (43.57 cm), fresh leaf weight (92.47g), dry leaf weight (6.13g), fresh weight of bulb (21.37g), total number of cloves per bulb (42.13), bulb diameter (4.13cm), fresh weight of bulb (21.37g), dry weight of bulb (5.73g) and yield (9.83 t/ha) which could help future researchers in garlic selection program and improvement of yield.
Filip Benko, Valentína Palkovičová, Michal Ďuračka, Július Árvay, Norbert Lukáč and Eva Tvrdá
The aim of our study was evaluation of potential antioxidant effects of marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract and assessment of its in vitro impact on the selected quality parameters of bovine spermatozoa. Marigold is medicinal herb from the family Asteraceae native to southern Europe, and it commonly used in pharmacology and medicine. Its well-known positive properties include antioxidant, antibacterial, antiflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, antihelmintic and wound-healing activities. In this study, the flower extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which identified especially phenolic acids (rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids) and polyphenols (rutin, kaempferol, resveratrol, quercetin and apigenin). These substances are known for their antioxidant activity and protective effects against oxidative stress. For our experiments, 10 samples of semen from sexually mature Holstein bulls were collected on a single day by using an artificial vagina, diluted in physiological saline solution and exposed to solutions with different concentration of marigold flower extract (75, 150 and 300 µg/mL). Selected quality parameters (motility, mitochondrial activity, production of reactive oxygen species – ROS, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation – LPO) were analyzed after 0, 2 and 24 hours of in vitro culture. The motility evaluation was performed by using the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) method. This method revealed that 75 and 150 µg/mL extract had positive effects and increased the motility (P<0.01) and mitochondrial activity (P<0.0001) of bovine spermatozoa compared to the control group following 2 and 24 hours. This phenomenon was observed also in case of ROS production, protein oxidation and LPO. Marigold extract concentrations of 75 and 150 µg/mL decreased the levels of ROS, protein oxidation and damage to the membranes caused by LPO compared to the control group (P<0.05; P<0.01) at time 2 and 24 hours. At the same time, 300 µg/mL extract exhibited positive, although less significant, effects compared to 75 and 150 µg/mL extracts. The data acquired from our study confirm that 75 and 150 µg/mL of marigold flower extract have positive effects on the motility and mitochondrial activity of bovine spermatozoa, and decrease ROS generation, LPO and protein oxidation in spermatozoa. Based on our results, the flower extract from marigold could be used for protection against oxidative stress in in vitro cultures of male gametes.
I. Stepanenko, D. Frolov, V. Salukhov, M. Didenko, V. Kitsyshin, Z. Khalaeva and S. Kushnarev
We reported a case of a twenty-one-year-old man with an atrial flutter as the first manifestation of progressive cardiac conduction disease. The patient was admitted to the cardiology department due to complaints of shortness of breath and a decrease in exercise tolerance, which had happened after physical exercises (running). During ambulatory ECG monitoring persistent AFL was observed with atrial rate 262-297 bpm and ventricular rate 26-136 bpm (average 56 bpm). AV conduction was very variable – 4:1-14:1. The results of ambulatory ECG monitoring during the whole period of recording indicated signs of atrioventricular conduction disturbances. After cardioversion sinus rhythm was restored additional rhythm and conduction disorders were revealed. Ambulatory ECG monitoring was performed two weeks after the initial one, and throughout this recording were registered sinus rhythm on the background of first-degree AV block; transient Mobitz I AV block; and type 2 second-degree sinoatrial block. Trans-esophageal electrophysiology study was performed. During pharmacological denervation of the heart, signs of slowing of the atrioventricular conduction and sinus node recovery time persisted. These changes along with right bundle branch block were regarded as a progressive cardiac conduction disease with an apparently hereditary cause.
Vukan M. Lavadinović, Dejan Beuković and Zoran Popović
The common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L. 1758) is an allochtonous game species of great importance to the hunting sector in Serbia. Growing concerns over a decline in its population raise issues about the proper management and hunting of common pheasants. As this research tends to identify the importance of common pheasants to Serbian hunters, the present study is based on a mixed research model combining traditional analyses with social studies on Serbian hunters. The data utilized have been collected from the annual management plans of 272 hunting grounds across Serbia and the interviews with 377 hunters. The results obtained suggest that there are significant differences between the analyzed variables in the management plans examined, which indicates that the pheasant hunting management in Serbia is not harmonized. However, the social studies conducted identify the common pheasant as the most hunted and popular game species with Serbian hunters. Accordingly, the common pheasant hunting and management in Serbia has to be improved in order to meet the hunters’ expectations and ensure their satisfaction.
The apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) possesses a number of health-promoting properties. The main beneficial effects of apple fruits on human health are associated with the antioxidant properties of components synthesising in apple fruits during their growth and development. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are such components that contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity of fruits, thus enhancing their health properties. The purpose of this study is to compare the antioxidant properties (namely antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic and flavonoid contents) of the ‘Idared’ and ‘Braeburn’ apple cultivars, grown under optimal growing conditions in the Goražde area. Ascorbic acid contents were estimated using the 2.6-dichlorophenolindophenol titration method, whereas total phenolics were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Furthermore, total flavonoids were determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, whereas the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay was used to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the apple fruits examined. The average values of the ascorbic acid, the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, and the total antioxidant capacity of the ‘Idared’ apples under consideration were 8.09 mg 100 g−1, 34.56 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g−1, 12.62 mg catechin equivalents 100 g−1 and 323.28 μmol Fe2+ 100 g−1of fresh weight, respectively. The average values of the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, as well as the antioxidant capacity of the ‘Braeburn’ apples examined were as follows: 8.89 mg 100 g−1, 33.4 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g−1, 13.56 mg catechin equivalents 100 g−1 and 367.01 μmol Fe2+ 100 g−1 of fresh weight, respectively. The analyses performed indicate that the differences recorded in the parameter values between the apple cultivars ‘Idared’ and ‘Braeburn’ were statistically non-significant. A correlation data analysis confirmed that phenolic compounds are the carriers of the antioxidant activity of apples.
Stoja Jotanović, Borislav Peno, Siniša Mandić, Đorđe Savić, Marinko Vekić and Marija Jovičić
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of antibiotic diluent additives on the motility and morphological integrity of diluted fresh boar semen during a six-day storage period. A total of 60 insemination doses, originating from two Landrace boars, were examined and allocated to control (C, n=30, diluted with BTS) and experimental groups (E, n=30, diluted with BTS upon antibiotic addition). The treatment applied exerted positive effects on the preservation of progressive motility, percentage of live sperm and HOS test results (70.24 vs. 66.53%, 71.54 vs. 69.77%, 67.35 vs. 64.17% and 64.10 vs. 54.26%;91.15 vs. 90.02%, 88.38 vs. 85.55%, 81.50 vs. 76.13% and 74.53 vs. 68.72%; and 93.35 vs. 92.40%, 91.04 vs. 88.02 %, 84.67 vs. 78.15% and 77.27 vs. 69.44% HOS+ sperm for the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 6th day of storage, respectively). The results obtained indicate that the treatment applied has a favourable effect on preserving the quality parameters of diluted fresh boar semen during storage, resulting most likely from a reduction of bacterial contamination.
Mihaela Kavran, Dušan Petrić, Aleksandra Ignjatović-Ćupina and Marija Zgomba
The housefly Musca domestica is a cosmopolitan insect nuisance pest, also known as a carrier of numerous pathogens both to humans and animals. Animal farms, as a very important source of house flies, simultaneously allow for all stages of their development. Having vast quantities of constantly present manure, pig units represent perfect environment for house fly breeding. This fact, coupled with the known resistance to majority of available insecticides, creates difficulties in house fly control. The present study was performed to evaluate different types of monitoring methods for indoor use: (a) spot deposit records on the cardboard; (b) fly trappings by: glue coated cardboard; (c) sticky fly strips; (d) yellow sticky cards; (e) visual records of flies on the cardboard. This study provided a clear differentiation of efficacy/usefulness of the tested methods for various house fly densities. In animal breeding units or other areas with very abundant fly population, less sensitive methods (traps are less efficient) should be selected. For these circumstances, glued cardboard or yellow sticky cards should be chosen. The “more sensitive” methods, spot cards and sticky fly strips, should be used for lower abundance of the fly population. Except for this purpose, these highly sensitive methods should be selected also in the areas where the flies should not be tolerated at any density. Although the levels of the observed fly activity significantly differ from each other, in the majority of cases they depict the similar trend of the population dynamics and relative density. The only exception to the rule was the visual method, which could not reflect the changes in the population density in the current study.
C.A. Verdeja-Robles, C.E. Velazquez-De la Rosa and A. Gutiérrez-Morgas
Objective: to know the prevalence of depression in patients with moderate-severe acne vulgaris.
Hypothesis: the incidence of depression increases in patients with moderate-severe acne vulgaris and will therefore decrease the quality of life.
Background: acne is a very frequent dermatosis in the outpatient clinic, it is not considered a life-threatening disease. It has been associated with negative emotional status. Also, suffering from it for a long time has been associated with depression, anxiety and frustration. The complications of acne in the psychosocial aspect are related to academic or vocational performance, self-esteem and adolescents’ quality of life.
Materials and Methods: the type of study was retrospective cross-sectional descriptive observational study. The sampling was carried out at the facilities of the Popular Autonomous University of the State of Puebla, taking into account any person within the institutional organisation within the range of 12-20 years of age, with a total of 50 participants. The Hamilton assessment scale of depression and the Cardiff Acne disability index were applied to all patients with dermatological diagnosis of moderate-severe vulgar acne in a period between February-October 2019. Results: a total of 50patients were analysed, of which 28 were women aged 12 to 20 years and 22 men (28 women and 13 men) and severe acne in 9 patients, all over 17 years of age and male. According to the degree of depression, 28% (n = 14) of the patients were obtained without some degree of depression; 60% (n = 30) with minor depression; 12% (n = 6) with moderate depression. Regarding the quality of life: 40% (n = 20) of the patients showed good quality of life, 46% (n = 23) regular quality of life and 14% (n = 7) showed poor quality of life.
Conclusion: orderly study of the psychic impact of acne and other skin diseases on people suffering them is recent and is carried out through questionnaires that try to measure the impact the diseases have on the patients’ quality of life.
T. Yamamoto, T.W. Wan, O. Khokhlova, W.C. Hung, Y.T. Lin, O. Peryanova and L.J. Teng
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogen. The evolution of MRSA is dynamic posing an ongoing threat to humans. The evolution of MRSA includes horizontal gene transfer, which is mediated by mobile genetic elements, plasmids, and bacteriophages, and also mutations. In this review, we clarify the recent trends in MRSA from the perspectives of drug-resistance transfer and uncontrollable infections, particularly those occurring in community settings. We first address the role of MRSA as a disseminator of multidrug resistance. We have studied the cell-to-cell transfer of drug resistance, in which transfer frequencies range from 10-3 to 10-8. The mechanisms of drug-resistance transfers include the self-transmission of large plasmids, the mobilization of small nonconjugative plasmids, the generalized transduction of phages, and the transfer of transposons with circular intermediates. We then discuss uncontrollable infections. Although several anti-MRSA agents have been developed, uncontrollable cases of MRSA infections are still reported. Examples include a case of uncontrollable sepsis arising from a community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) with the ST8/SCCmecIVl genotype, and a relapsing severe invasive infection of ST30/SCCmecIVc CA-MRSA in a student athlete. Some of these cases may be attributable to unique adhesins, superantigens, or cytolytic activities. The delayed diagnosis of highly adhesive and toxic infections in community settings may result in CA-MRSA diseases that are difficult to treat. Repeated relapse, persistent bacteremia, and infections of small-colony variants may occur. To treat MRSA infections in community settings, these unique features of MRSA must be considered to ensure that diagnostic delay is avoided.