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Abstract

Der Beitrag hinterfragt die Konstruktion und Vermittlung der Erinnerung an die DDR. Heutzutage ist die Interpretation der DDR-Geschichte in den Medien, in den meisten staatlichen Museen sowie in erfolgreichen Kinoproduktionen immer noch stark durch das totalitaristische Paradigma geprägt. Diese Darstellung steht im Widerspruch zur Alltagswahrnehmung der meisten ehemaligen DDR-Bürger. Obwohl sich die Forschung seit langem für Aspekte der Alltagsgeschichte interessiert, sind solche Elemente in den meisten aktuellen Darstellungen der DDR kaum vorhanden. Andreas Dresens und Laila Stielers Film Gundermann (2018) ist ein Beispiel für den Versuch von Ostdeutschen, die Deutungshoheit über ihre Geschichte zurückzugewinnen. Insgesamt beeinflusst die Unterrepräsentation der Ostdeutschen in Schlüsselpositionen der Gesellschaft auch die Möglichkeiten, auf die Darstellung dieser Vergangenheit einzuwirken.

Cette contribution s’interroge sur la façon dont la mémoire de la RDA est construite et transmise. Aujourd’hui, l’interprétation de l’histoire de la RDA se fait toujours essentiellement à partir du paradigme totalitaire, que ce soit dans les médias, dans la plupart des musées financés par l’État ou dans les productions cinématographiques à succès. Cette représentation est en décalage par rapport à la perception de la RDA telle qu’elle fut vécue de l’intérieur par la grande majorité de ses citoyens. Alors que la réflexion sur l’histoire du quotidien est présente depuis longtemps dans le monde de la recherche, les aspects qui en relèvent sont peu présents dans les représentations actuelles de la RDA. Le film Gundermann (2018) d’Andreas Dresen et Laila Stieler est un récent exemple d’une tentative entreprise par les Allemands de l’Est pour récupérer un pouvoir d’interprétation de leur passé. Globalement, la sous-représentation de ces derniers dans les positions-clés de la société influe également sur les possibilités de prise de parole sur ce passé.

This paper examines the construction and mediation of the GDR memory. Today, the interpretation of the GDR history in the media, through most of the state museums as well as successful movies, is still strongly influenced by the totalitarian paradigm. This representation contradicts the everyday perception of most former GDR citizens. Although research inspired by Alltagsgeschichte has long been interested in aspects of everyday history, such elements are scarcely present in most current representations of the GDR. Andreas Dresen’s and Laila Stieler’s film Gundermann (2018) is an example of East German attempts to regain sovereignty over the interpretation of their history. Overall, the under-representation of the East Germans in key positions in society also influences the possibilities of impacting the portrayal of this past.

Abstract

Wie können wir dreißig Jahre nach dem Fall der Berliner Mauer einen angemessenen Blickwinkel finden, um ein möglichst genaues Bild der DDR in Frankreich zu vermitteln? Wie können wir diese Frage problematisieren, um sie auf originellere Weise anzugehen als nur durch das Studium des Repressionsapparates? Wie können wir uns von der Erzählung der ‘Erfolgsgeschichte’ der Bundesrepublik und der ‘Misserfolgsgeschichte’ der DDR, die ihr Gegenstück wäre, distanzieren? Wir schlagen mehrere Wege zur Eröffnung dieser Debatte vor, in Form von drei Leitgedanken: sich auf die Akteure konzentrieren, die Bedeutung des dritten Wegs betonen und die Ergebnisse der neueren Forschung über die DDR benutzen, da die Geschichte der DDR heute meist nicht mehr so geschrieben wird wie es in den 1990er Jahren der Fall war.

Trente ans après la chute du Mur, comment trouver un angle adéquat pour véhiculer en France les représentations les plus justes possibles sur ce qu’a été la RDA ? Comment problématiser cette question pour l’aborder de façon plus originale que la seule étude de l’appareil de répression ? Comment sortir du récit de la Erfolgsgeschichte de la République fédérale et de la Misserfolgsgeschichte de la RDA qui en serait le pendant ? Nous proposons plusieurs pistes pour ouvrir ce débat, sous la forme de trois idées directrices : mettre l’accent sur les acteurs, sur la notion de troisième voie, et utiliser les résultats de la recherche récente sur la RDA, car on n’écrit pas aujourd’hui l’histoire de la RDA comme dans les années 1990.

Thirty years after the fall of the Wall, how can we find an adequate angle to convey the best representations of what the GDR was like in France? How can we problematize this question in order to approach it in a more original way than just studying the Stasi? How can we get away from the narrative of the Erfolgsgeschichte of the Federal Republic and the Misserfolgsgeschichte of the GDR, which would be its counterpart? We propose several possibilities in order to open this debate, in the form of three guiding ideas, focusing on the actors, emphasizing the notion of a third way, and using the results of recent research on the GDR, because the history of the GDR is no longer written today as it was in the 1990s.

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to establish the repertoire and distribution of verbal and adverbial exponents of epistemic modality in English- and Polish-language judgments passed by the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) and non-translated judgments passed by the Supreme Court of Poland (SN). The study applies a model for categorizing exponents of epistemicity with regard to their (i) level (high-, medium- and low-level of certainty, necessity or possibility expressed by the markers; primary dimension), (ii) perspective (own vs. reported perspective), (iii) opinion (based either on facts or beliefs) and (iv) time (the embedding of epistemic markers in sentences relating to the past, present or future) (contextual dimensions). It examines the degree of intra-generic convergence of translated EU judgments and non-translated national judgments in terms of the employment of epistemic markers, as well as the degree of authoritativeness of judicial argumentation, and determines whether the frequent use of epistemic markers constitutes a generic feature of judgments. The research material consists of a parallel corpus of English- and Polish-language versions of 200 EU judgments and a corpus of 200 non-translated domestic judgments. The results point to the high salience and differing patterns of use of epistemic markers in both EU and national judgments. The frequent use of high-level epistemic markers boosts the authoritativeness of judicial reasoning.

Abstract

Corrigenda issued by international organizations provide a most relevant source for the analysis of translation errors and what they reveal about institutional translation quality control and correction processes. This study examines corrigenda published in three settings (the European Union institutions involved in law-making, the United Nations and the World Trade Organization) in three years over a decade: 2005, 2010 and 2015. It reviews the procedures used to introduce translation corrections in these institutions before presenting the results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of translation-triggered corrigenda in two target languages, French and Spanish, per setting, year, genre, error type and severity. A distinction is made between content reformulation corrections and minor formal corrections for the comparison of diachronic changes and semantic impact levels of corrected errors between the institutions considered. The findings confirm that minor formal errors may have meaning-distorting effects that are as serious as content reformulation errors; when this is not the case, they rarely trigger single-correction corrigenda. The UN recourse to “reissues for technical reasons” for translation corrections and the growing number of corrigenda to EU legal acts and their implications for translation quality assurance and legal certainty are further contextualized and discussed drawing on both corpus analysis and consultations with institutional informants.

Abstract

This paper applies a structured legal-linguistic profiling approach to EU “staff representation bodies” as a way to access domains that lie behind the public face of EU institutions and their texts concerning translation, language and terminology. The study commences with a legal-linguistic analysis of EU texts for references to “staff”, “staff representation” and “employment” in order to identify specific texts and bodies of relevance to the study. This approach leads to two broad categories: staff committees and trade unions. Information is sought from EU institutions about these bodies and their translation and language arrangements, and a list is made of websites available to the general public. These sites are then examined as part of the legal-linguistic profiling approach.

Abstract

This article discusses preliminary findings of a study on the transposition of the legal concept of genocide into 131 national jurisdictions. The specificities of this transposition into national criminal systems, as well as those related to the international legal definition of genocide, are described in the first part. The communicative situations in which the concept of genocide has been transposed are then examined in order to show their scope and breadth, and to which extent they contribute to the transformation of the concept of genocide. Trends related to the object of transformation in the definition and their effect on meaning are subsequently outlined. The findings point to a situation where, despite having been the object of multiple consensus at the international level, the concept of genocide has been transformed by the vast array of domestic legal languages and legal systems into which it has been transposed and thereby reinforce the relation between the configuration of the language and law, and the difficulty of translation.