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Open access

Dorah Riah Mabule

Abstract

The aim of this article is to explore the dynamic of language choice and language use as well as to examine the effect of language policy on language attitudes in the Department of Correctional Services (DCS) with special reference to Pretoria Central Prison, now called Kgoši Mampuru Correctional facility where there is some resistance to the use of English as the only official language of business.

A case study was conducted at this facility to find out the language attitudes of the participants towards English as the only official language of business. A questionnaire was used to evoke the participants’ attitudes and beliefs regarding the importance of the use of other official languages (indigenous languages which, like English, also have official status) in their daily lives. A total of 60 correctional services staff and 280 offenders took part in this research study. Interviews and observations were mainly carried out at the research site to triangulate the data. Only the findings from the 280 offenders will be reported in this article.

The findings of this research study show that the participants were keen to use their languages of choice and favoured the language functions of their indigenous languages. The findings suggest that the prevailing language attitudes were in contrast with the aims of language policy at DCS thus making the effect of language planning not to be realized.

Open access

Dennis Matotoka and Kola O. Odeku

Abstract

In South Africa, progressive laws, policies and institutions established since 1996 seek to proliferate the representation of black African women in the private sector. However, the sector remains stagnant in giving opportunities to black African women to attain and occupy managerial and leadership positions. Black African women are not yet accepted as an integral of part of decision-making in the private sector contrary to the public sector that has somewhat progressed to place black African women in key decision-making positions in government. Consequently, black African women in the private sector predominately dominate the unskilled labour positions. The underrepresentation of black African women essentially denies them of economic participation and equality in the workplace. It is against the backdrop of this underrepresentation that this article analyses salient transformative legislative interventions that have been put in place to foster ample representation of black African women into managerial positions in the private sector. However, the concern is that the current legislative framework in South Africa does not explicitly make it mandatory for the private sector to achieve a specific target of black African women representation at the top management positions. The article showcases that the glass ceiling in the private sector is real and is nurtured by the organizational culture, policies and strategies which promote exclusion. Therefore, effective implementation and enforcement of laws and policies fostering mainstreaming of black African women into top managerial positions will help in breaking down the glass-ceiling. This will become realizable with the cooperation of all stake holders and role players where there is deliberate effort to empower and enhance the skill and capacity of women through quality training and education that will drive and deliver robust career development.

Open access

John K. Aderibigbe and Themba Q. Mjoli

Abstract

It is a documented fact that occupational stress is widespread worldwide. Moreover, there are clear signs of many variables, related to occupational stress. The study therefore, was conducted to demonstrate whether the presence of occupational stress in the world of work correlates in any form (positive or negative) with a better level of organisational performance and employee psychological wellbeing.

The study adopted the positivist explanatory cross-sectional (survey) research design to systematically sample opinions of 1,532 male and female graduate employees across the various sectors of the Nigerian economy, using a structured and validated questionnaire, and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

The results showed that there was a weak positive relationship between occupational stress and organisational citizenship behaviour (r = 0.070, p<0.01); there was a significant positive relationship between occupational stress and psychological capital (r = 0.128, p<0.01); and there was a significant positive relationship between psychological capital and organisational citizenship behaviour (r = 0.588, p<0.01).

The study recommended that human resource managers should develop psychological capital in employees in order to increase their levels of organisational performance and reduce the negative impact of occupational stress.

Open access

Masud Sarker and Shahidul Islam

Abstract

International migration has positive impacts on socio-economic development in Bangladesh. Using secondary data, this paper explores the impacts of remittances on socio-economic development in Bangladesh. The article reveals that remittance has significant impacts on Bangladesh economy and socio-economic development, for example, reducing the poverty, increasing the household expenditure, saving, leading to maintain the quality of life as well as gender equality. Therefore, the government should take necessary steps to fostering international migration as a national strategy for economic development of Bangladesh.

Open access

Jasper Edward Nyaura

Abstract

This paper examines the ethnicity as an issue prevailing upon the Kenyan society and its implication on the social, economic and political dimensions in Kenya. Devolved ethnicity has been seen to be on the arise since the county’s independence (1963) to date and therefore the distrust among communities is seen as an impediment to the socio-economic and political developments in Kenya. Moreover, the issues that arise include marginalization of minority ethnic communities towards accessing resources. Uneven distribution of national resources has led to underdevelopment of regions in Kenya thereby bring about regional imbalance in terms of distribution of national resources, which has negatively affected socio-economic development of the country. Negative ethnicity brings about marginalization, distrust and heightens ethnic tensions and this eventually leads to conflict, for example, the 1992, 1997 and the 2007/2008 post-election violence over the sharing and allocation of power and national resources. This paper examines ways in which ethnic problems in Kenya have been attributed to the social, economic and political perspectives and therefore provides the solution/medicine towards negative ethnicity.

Open access

Mashele Rapatsa

Abstract

Just over twenty-three years ago, the right to strike or protest received an explicit constitutional entrenchment and thus, legal protection. This would progressively empower citizens, including students, to protest against any infringement or deprivation of their rights or entitlements, and poor service delivery by any stakeholder in the institutions of learning, the government or private sector even. Today, South Africa is inundated with multiplicity of nationwide protests, most of which have been accompanied by appalling levels of violence, anarchy and criminality. Unexpectedly, students have had their share in such protests, and it could be argued, they have been an inspiration to various communities. Hence, this article proffers a critical reflection of the conduct of students during protests at the institutions of higher learning. The article seeks to understand and or explain variables that motivate students to vandalise property or antagonise those that opt to be passive or non-participants of such protests. In comparison to variables identified concerning the 1976 student protests, which were ideologically well grounded, the article attempts to describe contemporary students’ thinking towards protests and why vandalism and anarchism have become, not only conventional, but so intensely socialised. The article adopts content analysis method, and employs crowd theory and collective behaviour approach as tools of analysis. It is asserted that lack of ideological strategy underpinning South Africa’s unending revolution, which is needed to inform students’ struggles, is responsible for pervasive tendencies of vandalism and destruction of property during student protests.

Open access

Md Masud Sarker and Md. Shahidul Islam

Abstract

Social capital supports toward participating in political activities in democratic countries. This study tries to examine the relation between social capital and political participation in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sylhet Sadar Upazila (sub-district) of north-eastern Bangladesh. A total of 100 respondents - who are above 23 years of age - were selected by using systematic random sampling technique for a face-to-face interview. Chi-square test and Fisher Exact test were applied to measure the association between social capital dimensions and political participation. The results show that social networks, civic participation, norms of reciprocity and social trusts are significantly associated with political participation in Bangladesh. This result suggests that social capital may have an effect towards an increment of a political participation in Bangladesh.

Open access

Rosalina Pisco Costa, Carlos Vieira and Isabel Vieira

Abstract

Transition to university is a challenging phase in youngsters’ lives. The literature indicates that geographical distance separating the places of study and of family residence adds to the difficulties of transition and adjustment to university. Recent evidence suggests that it also negatively impacts students’ grades. Despite important work done by economists, geographers and psychologists, sociology has devoted scarce interest in understanding this topic. This article seeks to bridge this gap, specifically exploring the reasons justifying the largely ignored effect of distance between the university and family home in academic performance. The study draws on data on undergraduate students of a Portuguese public university, collected through an online survey. Two dimensions, one more related to practical life occupations and another more linked to personal feelings and activities, are examined. It is argued that the negative impact of distance is mainly due to homesickness and to the time spent traveling home. Results from such analysis are twofold socially relevant: of the utmost importance for families, academics and students’ support services, deserve to be seriously considered by policy makers deciding on the territorial distribution of higher-education institutions.

Open access

Bilal Sert and Sebahattin Ziyanak

Abstract

Immigration studies still investigate immigrants’ offspring and later generations’ socioeconomic upward and downward motilities. When it comes to early Turkish immigrants, there is an unfilled “missing link” from a sociological point of view. This study explores early Turkish immigrants’ adaptation experiences in the United Sates through qualitative triangulation and the methods of observation. This article utilizes “Straight-line theory”, “decline theory”, and “segmented assimilation to expound early Turkish immigrants’ adaptation experiences in the United States. Drawing on archival documents next to meetings with immigrants’ off springs, this study finds evidence that immigration occurred during the second wave to the United States from Europe, among Turks from Anatolia and Rumelia and they successfully adapted their new social environment. Rather, the findings provide novel evidence on the role of religious view and their social interaction. When seeking early Turks’ socio educational background, we discover that highly educated individuals including religious leaders, professors, and businessmen migrated to Peabody, MA.

Open access

Shumaila Umer, Zaheruddin Othman, Kalthum Bt Haji Hassan, Rahila Umer and Habib Ur Rehman

Abstract

Gossip is prevalent and is widespread in human society. Gossip has been denigrated as ‘idle talk’, mostly among women based on ‘trifling or groundless rumour’. The nature and intensity of gossiping victimise women in society. Consequently, women bear serious threat to their well standardized lives. The study aims to understand the women’s experiences with gossiping as a barrier to empowerment. This is a qualitative study with inductive approach. Men and Women are selected as a informants for this study. The data were congregated through in-depth interviews. The results indicate that gossiping or fear of being gossiped is a strong social control in the social setup of Balochistan. This prevents women from being empowered. This paper is intended to be a contribution to exploiting the ideas of women about gossiping as an essential social control or barrier for empowering women.