Aliyu Muhammad, Aliyu Dahiru Waziri, Gilead Ebiegberi Forcados, Babangida Sanusi, Hadiza Sani, Ibrahim Malami, Ibrahim Babangida Abubakar, Musa Fatima Abbah, Ali Tony Nelson, Bashir Musa and Hafsat Abdullahi Mohammed
It is now glaring that sickle cell anaemia is still one of the highest leading inbred hemoglobinopathy amongst Africans. This study examined the antisickling effects of quercetin via modulation of deoxy-haemoglobin, redox homeostasis and alteration of functional chemistry in human sickle erythrocyte using in silico and in vitro models while espousing preventive and curative approaches. Quercetin was docked against deoxy-haemoglobin and 2, 3-bisphosphoglycerate mutase, with binding energies (−30.427 and −21.106 kcal/mol) and Ki of 0.988μM and 0.992μM at their catalytic sites via strong hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions. Induction of sickling was done using 2% metabisulphite at 3h. Treatment with quercetin prevented sickling outstandingly at 5.0μg/mL and reversed same at 7.5μg/mL, 83.6% and 75.9%, respectively. Quercetin also significantly (P<0.05) maintained the integrity of erythrocyte membrane apparently from the observed % haemolysis relative to untreated. Quercetin significantly (P<0.05) prevented and counteracted lipid peroxidation while stimulating GSH and CAT levels which were detected to considerably (P<0.05) increase with simultaneous significant (P<0.05) reduction in SOD level based on curative approach. Umpiring from our FTIR results, a favorable alteration in the part of functional chemistry in terms of shifts (bend and stretches) and functional groups were observed relative to the induced erythrocyte/untreated. Thus, antisickling effects of quercetin may be associated with modulation of deoxy-haemoglobin, redox homeostasis and alteration of functional chemistry in human sickle erythrocytes.
Katarína Hroboňová, Andrea Špačková and Martina Ondáková
Coumarins can be as a result wine storage and aging in wood drums and they can affect organoleptic characteristics of wine. The aim of this work was to determine the content of coumarins in wine samples originated from Slovak Tokaj wine region. The HPLC method with high specificity, accuracy, precision, and recovery was proposed. SPE sorbents of C18 type, styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer and molecularly imprinted polymers were compared for extraction of six coumarins, coumarin, aesculin, scoparone, scopoletin, 4-methylumbelliferone, and herniarin. Higher recoveries (above 89 %; except aesculin – recoveries higher from 68 %, RSDs less than 6 %) were obtained with selective polymeric sorbent laboratory prepared by molecularly imprinted technology. The results showed that content of coumarins in wine samples are in ng.mL−1 concentration levels and depend on the age and wine puttony.
Katarína Vulganová, Tibor Maliar, Mária Maliarová, Peter Nemeček, Jana Viskupičová, Andrea Balážová and Jozef Sokol
Sage is medicinal plant, known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Eight extract samples were tested in this study: extract from Salvia officinalis L. varieties from two different geographical localities (Jaslovské Bohunice and Pobedim, Slovakia), Salvia officinalis L., variety “bicolor”, Salvia officinalis L., variety “purpurescens”, Salvia apiana, Salvia divinorum, and two callus cultures of Salvia sclarea L. and Salvia aethiopis L. The highest values for composite parameters were observed for extract from Salvia apiana. It can be concluded that prepared sage extract samples are rich on polyphenolic acids (2 950±265 μg.mL−1 GAeq.) and amines (197±5.50 μg.mL−1 TRPeq.). HPLC analysis confirmed the dominant content of rosmarinic acid in the extracts; the highest content was detected in the Salvia apiana extract (1 120±15 μg.mL−1). Extract from Salvia apiana expressed too the highest antioxidant activity (1 710 – 4 669 μg.mL−1TEAC). Similarly, the highest inhibition activity was observed for this extract on thrombin (57±3.3 %) and on other proteinases (over 80 %). Spearman correlation analysis and PCA analyses revealed a coherence between antioxidant activity of samples and their content of rosmarinic acid as well as inhibitory activity towards particular proteases, and revealed the significance of thiol based secondary metabolites. Cluster analysis demonstrates the differences of Salvia apiana extract from extracts of S. officinalis L., the group of S. divinorum extract and from callus cultures.
Nodir Sh. Berdiev, Jamolitdin F. Ziyavitdinov, Akmal M. Asrorov, Shukhratjon S. Olimjonov and Shavkat I. Salikhov
Lipases cleaving oils into fatty acids and glycerol are of great interest for the use in increasing the efficiency of fuels. In this work, a novel lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa A12, was isolated by ion-exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. The purity of lipase was shown by electrophoresis and its molecular weight was estimated to be ~ 31.6 kDa. The whole amino acid sequence was analyzed by an LC-MS/MS method. Temperature- and pH-dependent optimum of the enzyme compiled 30 °C and 7.5, respectively. The obtained enzyme exhibited 79 % similarity of amino acid sequence to a lipase isolated from the same strain of P. aeruginosa. Thus, the novel lipase was determined to belong to I.1 subfamily of bacterial true lipases. Three dimensional structure of the isolated lipase isoform was modeled based on obtained sequences. Amino acids forming the catalytic domain were shown in the model. Lid domain is suggested to be in the open conformation. These results provide a potential alternative for enzymatic digestion of fuel oils and serve for the development of fundamental knowledge of lipase activity.
N. O. Orieke, O.S. Asaolu, T. A. Fashanu and O. A. Fasanmade
Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder that affects the ability of the human body to properly utilize and regulate glucose. It is pervasive world-wide yet tenuous and costly to manage. Diabetes Mellitus is also difficult to model because it is nonlinear, dynamic and laden with mostly patient specific uncertainties. A neuro-fuzzy model for the prediction of blood glucose level in Type 1 diabetic patients using coupled insulin and meal effects is developed. This study establishes that the necessary and sufficient conditions to predict blood glucose level in a Type 1 diabetes mellitus patient are: knowledge of the patient’s insulin effects and meal effects under diverse metabolic scenarios and the transparent coupling of the insulin and meal effects. The neuro-fuzzy models were trained with data collected from a single Type 1 diabetic patient covering a period of two months. Clarke’s Error Grid Analysis (CEGA) of the model shows that 87.5% of the predictions fall into region A, while the remaining 12.5% of the predictions fall into region B within a four (4) hour prediction window. The model reveals significant variation in insulin and glucose responses as the Body Mass Index (BMI) of the patient changes.
Oľga Šestinová, Jozef Hančuľák and Tomislav Špaldon
This study was conducted to investigate heavy metals bioaccumulation in industrialized soils in surrounding of Košice city (Slovakia), using earthworms. In the present research, we used ecotoxicity tests with Dendrobaena veneta (7 and 28-day bioassays) to infer about potential toxic risks to the agricultural (A) and permanent grass vegetation (PGV) of soils around the plant U. S. Steel Košice. The total Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and As contents and eco-toxicological tests of industrialized soils from the Košice area were performed for 12 sampling sites in years 2016 – 2017. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the largest steel producer plant on the total concentrations of heavy metals was determined for Fe, Cd, Cr and As. It was found that earthworms (Dendrobaena veneta) in some cases caused a decrease of metals concentration in contaminated soils, the largest metal concentration differences were recorded in the samples PGV (4) U. S. Steel-plant-main gate. The results of the bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals in D. veneta (BAFs/7-28 d) are < 1 for the studied metals order in the sequence: Cr < Fe < Pb < Cu < As and > 1 for Zn > Cd.
Sinoyolo Nondlazi, Nosiphiwe Ngqwala, Bongumusa M. Zuma, Paul K. Mensah and Roman Tandlich
Acute toxicity of raw and treated greywater towards Daphnia magna was assessed in this study. Treatment was performed with exposure of greywater to the fly-lime mixture After 48 h of exposure, 100 % mortality of D. magna was recorded when testing the following volumetric fractions of the raw greywater streams in the tested liquid medium (%; v/v): 10 % for kitchen greywater, 5 – 10 % for bathroom greywater and 1.25 – 10 % for laundry greywater. After greywater treatment with the fly-ash-lime mixture with pH adjustment to 7.0, 80 % of neonates of D. magna survived after exposure to treated laundry greywater in all dilutions at 48 h. At the same time, 100 % of neonates survived exposure to treated bathroom and kitchen greywater at all volumetric fractions. Therefore greywater had acute toxicity to D. magna, i.e. greywater treatment was required before its discharge or reuse. Values of the Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the chemical components of the raw greywater and treated greywater and the survival of D. magna indicated a lack of statistically significant correlation at 5 % level of significance (p-value > 0.05 in all cases), i.e. the survival of D. magna was independent of the concentration of chemical constituents in greywater samples tested. Further studies will have to be conducted on the chronic toxicity of the greywater effluent after treatment with the fly-lime mixture. Experiments from this study will have to be re-run for the fully scaled-up version of the fly-lime mixture-based greywater treatment systems.
Kome Otokunefor, Victor Ogechi Osogho and Chijindu Precious Nwankwo
Multidrug resistance (MDR) continues to be a growing global issue. The problem of MDR is fuelled in part by the spread of the genes encoding resistance horizontally which is linked particularly to conjugation involving plasmids. Studies have demonstrated the presence of plasmids in drug resistant isolates, few have shown a link between these plasmids and drug resistance via plasmid curing especially in our locale. This study set out to explore this link in Escherichia coli isolates from Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Plasmid curing was done on a selection of clinical and non-clinical bacteria using acridine orange and antibiotic susceptibility testing carried out on both cured and uncured variants. Data generated was analysed to ascertain the multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index and MDR of each isolate. Data was then compared to ascertain effects of plasmid curing on antibiotic resistance of the isolates. Results revealed a decrease in resistance to 7 of 8 antibiotics following plasmid curing. The highest change was noted in ceftazidime (40%), followed by ofloxacin (26.7%). Plasmid curing caused a shift in MAR index values of isolates from higher to lower indices. At MAR index values of ≤0.25 occurrence increased from 5% to 36.7% while at MAR index values ≥0.75, occurrence reduced from 29.9% to 10.0%. A reduction in the degree of MDR was noted (from 55% to 36.7%). Strikingly, the reduction in MDR level of non-clinical isolates was 30% as opposed to 3.4% in the clinical isolates. This study shows a link between plasmids and antibiotic resistance. For the non-clinical isolates, the high-level link between MDR and plasmid carriage could indicate a higher use of antimicrobials in non-clinical rather than clinical settings. Additionally, it could be an indicator for a higher risk of the transfer of MDR determinants from non-clinical sources to human populations in our locale.
Jana Sedláková-Kaduková, Jana Kisková, Lenka Maliničová, Ivana Timková, Stanislav Jeleň and Peter Pristaš
Sulphur-oxidising autotrophic bacterial communities in deep biosphere from weathered ore samples from active gold mine Hodruša-Hámre, Slovakia were analysed using cultivation approach followed by DNA extraction, PCR amplification and 16S rRNA gene analyses. Indirect measurement of pH changes in cultivation media evidenced the presence of acidophilic bacteria with active production of acids. The decrease of pH was observed at the beginning of isolation and later pH in range of 1.5 – 2 was maintained in both, sulphuric acid and thiosulphate, media. The presence of homogenous population of gram-negative rods was proved by Gram staining. Molecular analyses have revealed that the population of sulphur-oxidising bacteria in gold mine is dominated by a single species of Aciditiobacillus genus, identified as A. albertensis, suggesting the low level of autotrophic bacteria diversity in deep deposits. For the first time this species was isolated from weathered rocks of a gold mine subsurface environment.
Asiata Omotayo Ibrahim, Misbaudeen Abdul-Hammed, Samuel Adewale Adegboyega, Monsurat Olajide and Akeem Abefe Aliyu
Tomato is a significant vegetable crop with numerous health benefits derived from its carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrients contents. This work studies the nutritional qualities and carotenoids contents of five different cultivars of tomatoes (San Marz, Nasmata, Roma VF, Ogbomoso local and 4-lobes). The variations of pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar, total solid, lycopene and beta-carotene contents of these tomatoes were investigated under ambient temperature and field ripening techniques and the mean values of these parameters investigated at different ripening stages and techniques were compared. Lycopene contents were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in tomatoes subjected to field ripening compared with those ripened under ambient temperature. The highest lycopene content (17.18 μg/g) was observed in Roma VF cultivar at fully-ripe stage under field ripening technique while the lowest value (0.64 μg/g) was in 4-lobes cultivar at semi-ripe stage under ambient temperature ripening. Similar trend was observed in the variation of betacarotene (a pro-Vitamin A index) among the tomato cultivars. The evaluated reducing sugar contents (ranging from 1.84 to 5.23 μg/g) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in fully-ripe tomatoes compared to semi-ripe ones under field ripening and the trend was reversed for some cultivars under ambient temperature ripening. The titratable acidities of the tomatoes were significantly higher at the semi-ripe stage (0.24 to 0.38 %) under field ripening than those obtained under ambient temperature ripening (0.15 to 0.25 %). The pH of the tomatoes ranged from 3.58 to 4.07 and 3.46 to 5.40 under field and ambient temperature ripening, respectively, and the higher pH values obtained under ambient temperature ripening condition could make such tomatoes unsuitable in tomato processing plants. Consumption of tomatoes for the purpose of dietary antioxidant lycopene and pro-Vitamin A could maximally be achieved at fully-ripe stage under field ripening condition.