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Antra Viļuma

Abstract

The wooden architecture of the 19th century is mentioned in the UNESCO World Heritage description of Riga among the criteria that makes the Capital city of Outstanding Universal Value. So far, 3 500 wooden buildings in the city have survived. This paper summarizes information on the renovation of four wooden buildings. The aim of this paper is to give a closer overview on the impact of ownership, funding source and location in the city of the building on the process of renovation and architectural change. The internationally approved renovation principles in the renovation of wooden buildings in Riga are not often taken into account.

Open access

Grėtė Brukštutė

Abstract

The article analyses and compares general education and specialised schools built in Lithuania, Europe and the USA during interwar years. The main problem analysed in the article is the correspondence between the architectural stylistics and functional spatial structure of interwar Lithuanian school buildings with the same typology buildings in the regional context. The aim of the article is to assess the essence of changes of architectural stylistics and functional spatial structure, what caused these changes. Interwar architecture in Lithuania has many of the main trends of the global architecture of that time, so undoubtedly interwar period is considered to be one of the most significant periods in the history of Lithuanian architecture, which has laid the foundations for the further development of Lithuanian architecture.

Open access

Ryszard Nejman, Maciej Łepkowski, Anna Wilczyńska and Beata J. Gawryszewska

Abstract

In the authors’ view, the existing urban planning system is not favourable to the temporality and variability of urban wastelands, which complement traditional urban greenery through a range of functions such as; gardens, meeting spaces, places to walk the dog etc. Consequently, the aim of the paper is to investigate functions and possible scenarios for the development of urban wastelands in Poland. The methods used in the research include a comparative assessment of wasteland case studies from Warsaw and Tarnów and a comparison of possible development scenarios based on case studies from different cities across Europe. Wastelands were researched to establish their location, their functions, the distance from inhabited areas and the types of other green areas located within a 5 min. isochrone from the surrounding housing area. Case studies of development scenarios were researched to establish their changing functions, the continuity of design and the algorithm of creation. The authors conducted qualitative interviews, mapping, inventories of territorial marks (makeshift benches or other constructions made by users showing the way they ‘own’ the area), investigation of local development plans and literature reviews to gather the data used. The collation of results has led to the creation of a ‘wastelands toolkit’ – a tool dedicated to urban planners and decision makers.

Open access

Katarzyna Nikorowicz-Zatorska

Abstract

The present paper focuses on spatial management regulations in order to carry out investment in the field of airport facilities. The construction, upgrades, and maintenance of airports falls within the area of responsibility of local authorities. This task poses a great challenge in terms of organisation and finances. On the one hand, an active airport is a municipal landmark and drives local economic, social and cultural development, and on the other, the scale of investment often exceeds the capabilities of local authorities.

The immediate environment of the airport determines its final use and prosperity. The objective of the paper is to review legislation that affects airports and the surrounding communities. The process of urban planning in Lodz and surrounding areas will be presented as a background to the problem of land use management in the vicinity of the airport. This paper seeks to address the following questions: if and how airports have affected urban planning in Lodz, does the land use around the airport prevent the development of Lodz Airport, and how has the situation changed over the time?

It can be assumed that as a result of lack of experience, land resources and size of investments on one hand and legislative dissonance and peculiar practices on the other, aviation infrastructure in Lodz is designed to meet temporary needs and is characterised by achieving short-term goals. Cyclical problems are solved in an intermittent manner and involve all the municipal resources, so there’s little left to secure long-term investments.

Open access

Daria Łucka

Abstract

The focus of the following article will be New Urbanism, an urbanistic movement which originated in the United States and advocated the establishment and reinforcing of communities through planning activities. Its proponents claim that the proper design of space leads to the development of a local community. The article will discuss the main principles of the New Urbanism approach, such as its social doctrine and the concept of neighbourhood. Possible benefits of New Urbanism and critical arguments regarding it will also be analysed.

Open access

Andrzej Bukowski, Marcjanna Nóżka and Marta Smagacz-Poziemska

Abstract

In this article we analyse the socio-spatial contexts and consequences of the practice of car parking in housing estates. Fredrik Barth’s idea of socially constructed boundaries and the theory of social practice form the theoretical basis of our analysis. The empirical material comes from research conducted in 2016 and 2017 in three Polish cities. We analyse the practice of parking in terms of the specific aspect of mobility that is ‘mooring’. The research shows that parking practices influence the structuring of territorial communities in housing estates on two levels: everyday activities, norms and rules, as well as social differences and boundaries in the space occupied by the housing estate.

Open access

Paweł Pistelok

Abstract

A city’s public spaces ought to meet a number of requirements to serve their main purpose, that is to foster public life. They need, for instance, to answer people’s needs, fulfil certain social functions, and let people use their basic rights, among them the most important right of access. In Katowice, one of the most prominent examples of the regeneration of public spaces is now the Culture Zone. The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of social functions in the area mentioned, a fine example of the post-industrial heritage of Upper Silesia. Applying some of the qualities of public space identified in the theories adopted, the paper discusses how the Culture Zone [in Polish: Strefa Kultury] fulfils the above-mentioned demands and requirements. Is it accessible? Does it meet the need for comfort? Does it function as a leisure space? By referring to analyses and opinions presented in the literature and comparing them with the results of the author’s own empirical research, this article discusses the importance, opportunities, and shortcomings of the Culture Zone as a public space.

Open access

Rafał Myszka and Kinga Niedziółka-Rybak

Abstract

Central areas of major cities have always been of interest to totalitarian regimes. All publicly accessible areas were meant not only to be highlights of the metropolis, but also symbols of political ideologies. In communist times the glamour of the regime was supposed to be reflected in large scale and representative urban and architectural complexes. This article presents some such examples from the era of Soviet domination in Eastern Europe. Following the typology by Krzysztof Nawratek we took a closer look at how the central public space was shaped in Kiev, Warsaw, Sofia, Bucharest and Vilnius.

Open access

Gökçen Firdevs Yücel Caymaz

Abstract

Bus shelters, which form a part of daily lives of people, generally provide service as small areas of urban space created for short-term periods of waiting. From the perspective of spatial design, it is important that an environment of good quality is provided for users of bus-shelters. This study proposed hypotheses to research how the physical design of bus shelters (location-accessibility, anthropometric characteristics, roofing and walls, lighting, electronic information, seating, etc.) affected general satisfaction of their users. To establish users’ general satisfaction, direct observation was performed and the hypotheses were tested through surveys conducted at bus-shelters selected in two areas of Istanbul (Ataköy- Beşyol) with different economic levels, and an assessment was made of the users’ satisfaction analyses and related problems of bus shelter design. In the conclusion, it was established that there is a significant correlation between general satisfaction and, among other things, the perceived degree of difficulty in getting on and off buses, the harmonization of bus shelter design with the surroundings, the adequacy of a shelter for summer use, the comfort of a shelter, the adequacy of seating, and the extent to which the shelter is maintained.

Open access

Katarzyna Goch, Szymon Ochota, Monika Piotrkowska and Zuzanna Kunert

Abstract

Over the last decade the number of studies on public transit accessibility has significantly increased. The aim of the study was to analyse the scope of application of measurements of the dynamic time accessibility in transportation systems for evaluation purposes. It was assumed that the indicator is a feasible measure for basic analysis however additional indicators are needed for reliable assessment. The study included assessing access to the global centre of Warsaw and to local and district centres in particular units. Public transit accessibility was analysed using schedule-based travel time and the population data statistic. The results of the study confirm the dynamic character of public transit time accessibility and its usefulness as a measure. Spatial and transit barriers were identified in local distribution centres and public transit operation. The work presented in the paper highlights the relevance of the in-depth evaluation of the public transit system in relation to the major congestion problems in Warsaw.