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Kurzfassung

Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement steht gerade in Städten, die von Bevölkerungsrückgang betroffen sind, vor großen Herausforderungen, da soziale Netzwerke ausgedünnt und kommunale Dienstleistungen im freiwilligen Pflichtaufgabenbereich reduziert worden sind. Gleichzeitig nimmt in solchen Städten das zivilgesellschaftliche Engagement einen besonderen Stellenwert ein, um Engpässe bei der Daseinsvorsorge auszugleichen. Der Artikel untersucht die lebensweltlichen Umstände von zivilgesellschaftlich Engagierten und will damit einen Beitrag zum Verständnis für den unterschiedlichen Umfang des Engagements bestimmter Personengruppen in bestimmten Lebensphasen leisten. Anhand von Projektverläufen im zivilgesellschaftlichen Engagement, initiiert von jüngeren Personengruppen, werden Hemmnisse und Bedarfe aufgezeigt, die die Engagierten erfahren haben. Die Befunde zeigen, dass bürokratische und hierarchische Hürden, geringe Wertschätzung freiwilliger Arbeit und Interessenkonflikte zwischen Fördergebern und Engagierten von Letzteren als wesentliche Hemmnisse wahrgenommen werden. Dem gegenüber stehen Einzelfaktoren zivilgesellschaftlichen Engagements, die im Einklang mit den lebensweltlichen Umständen der Engagierten stehen, wie gemeinsames Arbeiten, ein offener, flexibler Rahmen für das individuelle Handeln wie auch dessen flexible Einteilung und Organisation. Dem Beitrag liegen empirische Daten zugrunde, die durch Einzelfallanalysen in der ostdeutschen Kleinstadt Weißwasser erhoben worden sind.

Abstract

Universities are important economic actors and make a considerable impact on the demand and supply side of their local economies. The aim of this paper is to quantify, compare and classify the different economic demand-and supply-side contributions of the university locations within Lower Saxony (Germany) using a combination of multiplier analysis and spatial econometrics on a NUTS 3 level. In comparison to numerous other studies, this paper does not focus on the economic impact of individual cases or a selected university location but gives a complete picture of the importance and significance of all university locations within Lower Saxony. The income-induced direct and indirect demand effects are estimated using a rich data set of higher education statistics in combination with an income and employment multiplier derived from a regional input-output table. The supply-side effects, i.e. the impact of the education and research outcomes, are estimated with the help of spatial panel regressions, a model derived from human capital theory and knowledge spillover theory. The estimation results give a complete and reproducible impression of the importance and significance of the different university locations, offering the opportunity for comparisons and classifications.

Kurzfassung

Dieser Beitrag knüpft an aktuelle Diskurse zu Digitalisierungsprozessen und Raumentwicklung an. Es wird untersucht, inwiefern durch digitalisierte Fertigungsmethoden (wie Industrie-4.0-Anwendungen) neue Formen urbaner Produktion entstehen können. Aufbauend auf theoretisch-konzeptionellen Überlegungen wurden empirische Erkenntnisse durch 41 Experteninterviews in acht industriell geprägten Städten Nordrhein-Westfalens gewonnen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass durch die gewerbliche Anwendung neuer digitaler Fertigungsverfahren neuartige Formen hybrider digitaler urbaner Produktion entstehen, die spezifischen problemzentrierten Wertschöpfungslogiken unterliegen. Der Beitrag entwickelt ein präziseres Verständnis dieser Wertschöpfungsprozesse und der Standorteinbettung hybrider digitaler urbaner Produktion.

Abstract

Researchers within the built environment disciplines have increasingly drawn on a plurality of social methods in order to enrich their research. Three decades down the line the place of philosophy in the choice of appropriate research methods is yet to be appreciated by some built environment researchers. Consequently, a lack of adventure in interpretive research, wrong choice of methods and underrepresentation of the qualitative approach are reported, which suggests the existence of a knowledge gap. This study is aimed at illustrating the philosophical premise for employing social research methods to address socio-technical issues in built environment research. In achieving this, reference was made to a fire incident in a student dormitory in Nigeria as a problem upon which contrasting–subjectivist and objectivist–philosophical positions were examined. The consideration of these philosophical positions and the choices that resulted from both spectrums were seen to have their strengths and weaknesses. To offset the weaknesses in each approach while also leveraging on the strengths that each approach offers, the paper illustrated how a compromise–pragmatist–position can be reached to allow for the choice of, and mixing of multi-methods to solve research problems that could not be adequately solved using any single method.

Abstract

The growth of the tourism and hospitality industry played an important role in the gentrification of the post-socialist city of Budapest. Although disinvestment was present, reinvestment was moderate for decades after 1989. Privatisation of individual tenancies and the consequent fragmented ownership structure of heritage buildings made refurbishment and reinvestment less profitable. Because of local contextual factors and global changes in consumption habits, the function of the dilapidated 19th century housing stock transformed in the 2000s, and the residential neighbourhood which was the subject of the research turned into the so called ‘party district’. The process was followed in our ongoing field research. The functional change made possible speculative investment in inner city housing and played a major role in the commodification of the disinvested housing stock.

Abstract

The main aim of the article is to investigate the spatial structure of international research on post-socialist cities. The analysis is based on data derived from the Scopus database (2001–2018) and includes issues such as the publication dynamics, structure of authors (with regard to cities and countries), main publishing ‘channels’, as well as networks in ‘producing’ knowledge on post-socialist cities. The analyses conducted primarily lead to a general conclusion about the high spatial concentration of these studies in the scientific centres of Central and Eastern Europe. On a more detailed dimension, however, analyses show a significant diversity in both the publication channels used by researchers and the co-citation networks. On this basis, a conclusion is made about the occurrence of the problem of introversions in research on post-socialist cities on an international scale, which is a broader concept than the Anglo-American dominance discussed for at least two decades.