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Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement steht gerade in Städten, die von Bevölkerungsrückgang betroffen sind, vor großen Herausforderungen, da soziale Netzwerke ausgedünnt und kommunale Dienstleistungen im freiwilligen Pflichtaufgabenbereich reduziert worden sind. Gleichzeitig nimmt in solchen Städten das zivilgesellschaftliche Engagement einen besonderen Stellenwert ein, um Engpässe bei der Daseinsvorsorge auszugleichen. Der Artikel untersucht die lebensweltlichen Umstände von zivilgesellschaftlich Engagierten und will damit einen Beitrag zum Verständnis für den unterschiedlichen Umfang des Engagements bestimmter Personengruppen in bestimmten Lebensphasen leisten. Anhand von Projektverläufen im zivilgesellschaftlichen Engagement, initiiert von jüngeren Personengruppen, werden Hemmnisse und Bedarfe aufgezeigt, die die Engagierten erfahren haben. Die Befunde zeigen, dass bürokratische und hierarchische Hürden, geringe Wertschätzung freiwilliger Arbeit und Interessenkonflikte zwischen Fördergebern und Engagierten von Letzteren als wesentliche Hemmnisse wahrgenommen werden. Dem gegenüber stehen Einzelfaktoren zivilgesellschaftlichen Engagements, die im Einklang mit den lebensweltlichen Umständen der Engagierten stehen, wie gemeinsames Arbeiten, ein offener, flexibler Rahmen für das individuelle Handeln wie auch dessen flexible Einteilung und Organisation. Dem Beitrag liegen empirische Daten zugrunde, die durch Einzelfallanalysen in der ostdeutschen Kleinstadt Weißwasser erhoben worden sind.


Universities are important economic actors and make a considerable impact on the demand and supply side of their local economies. The aim of this paper is to quantify, compare and classify the different economic demand-and supply-side contributions of the university locations within Lower Saxony (Germany) using a combination of multiplier analysis and spatial econometrics on a NUTS 3 level. In comparison to numerous other studies, this paper does not focus on the economic impact of individual cases or a selected university location but gives a complete picture of the importance and significance of all university locations within Lower Saxony. The income-induced direct and indirect demand effects are estimated using a rich data set of higher education statistics in combination with an income and employment multiplier derived from a regional input-output table. The supply-side effects, i.e. the impact of the education and research outcomes, are estimated with the help of spatial panel regressions, a model derived from human capital theory and knowledge spillover theory. The estimation results give a complete and reproducible impression of the importance and significance of the different university locations, offering the opportunity for comparisons and classifications.


The construction industry is changing constantly and becoming more complex. It requires new strategies for compliance with national and international scenarios. Developing each project is associated with many limitations, including time, cost, changes, wastes, and errors, which are often not avoidable. Due to numerous project stages and complexities in the construction industry, usually, different mistakes and duplications occur. Meanwhile, Building Information Modeling (BIM) has created one of the most important and essential changes in this industry and results in more in-depth cooperation among project stakeholders. BIM is one of the most recent innovations in the construction industry, which resolves the problems of projects faster. BIM can be applied by architects, engineers, contractors, project managers, etc. to achieve objectives such as reducing design errors, reducing time and cost, improving design and construction integration, and increasing coordination and cooperation among different sections. Given the significance of project success in every country and several problems in each project, using BIM is an appropriate solution, which its proper implementation requires understanding its benefits that is the main aim of this study. This research identifies and classifies these benefits through the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) method, describing the significance of using BIM in infrastructure projects.


health-related problems and even death among animals and human beings. Agriculture is the main food source; thus, many interventions are made such as that of irrigation by the local county and national government initiated through the National Irrigation Board (NIB). Despite the irrigation projects food insufficiency still persists, therefore their sustainability is questionable. One such approach to improving the sustainability of irrigation projects is participatory monitoring and evaluation which leads to ownership and then higher sustainability. In the study, the objective was to asses if taking corrective action after participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME) influence project sustainability. The study used a descriptive survey and correlation designs to collect data from 316 respondents selected using stratification sand purposeful with strict randomization. Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected sample respondents on appointed dates. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0 to get descriptive statistics, correlations coefficients were obtained to test association and degree of strength. Testing of the hypothesis was done using linear regression. The study findings were that a large number of respondents were between ages 31 to 40 years and most were female with their highest level of education being primary school. The influence of PME capacity building on the dependent variable and irrigation projects sustainability found that the farmers were not taken for exposure visits and project officers were not accountable for money use. Age, gender, and education level have very minimal influence on PME capacity building. PME capacity building had a weak positive influence of r = 0.290 and it explained only 8.4% of irrigation projects sustainability in Kitui County. The study recommends that to improve project capacity building: project revenue must be controlled on use, farmers must be taken for exposure visits to learn from successors, project officers should be accountable for funds use, and project guidelines should be improved to increase sustainability. Implementation of these recommendations will reduce the loss of Arid and Semi-Srid Lands (ASALs) and attain higher and longer sustainability in food projects, thus, reducing the recurrence rate of food shortage, improve and hasten the implementation of irrigation projects, show the need to involve primary stakeholders in project monitoring and appraisal for sustainability, better and efficient decisions by policymakers to increase chances of project’s success.