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Open access

Takfarinas Idres, Ali Lamara, Soraya Temim, Sofiane Boudjellaba, Jean Gagnon and Yahia Chebloune

Abstract

Introduction: Infection of goats with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) has been detected in variable proportions in many countries all over the world. Here, we investigated the seroprevalence of CAEV in goats raised in Algeria.

Material and Methods: A serological survey was performed on serum samples from 1,313 goats, including the local breeds (Arabia and Dwarf of Kabylia) and imported European breeds (Alpine and Saanen). Blood samples were taken from goats on 38 farms distributed across four different geographical regions of Algeria. Serum samples were tested for CAEV antibodies using a commercial ELISA.

Results: A total of 390 serum samples were found to be positive for CAEV, giving an overall seropositivity rate of 29.7% in individual animals and 97.37% (37/38) at the goat farm level.

Conclusion: These results provide the first large-scale serological evidence for the presence of CAEV infection in both the local and imported breeds of goats raised in Algeria, indicating that the virus infection is widespread.

Open access

Anna Śmiech, Wojciech Łopuszyński, Brygida Ślaska, Kamila Bulak and Agnieszka Jasik

Abstract

Introduction: Breed predisposition to cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCT) in a population of dogs in Poland affected by various skin tumours was assessed, and the distribution of MCT characteristics such as histological grading, sex, age, and location, in predisposed breeds was evaluated.

Material and Methods: The retrospective epidemiological study included 550 dogs affected by cutaneous MCTs with a reference group of 2,557 dogs diagnosed with other skin tumours.

Results: A univariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. The risk of high-grade MCTs was the highest for Shar-Peis (OR: 26.394) and American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.897). Boxers (OR: 6.619), Labrador Retrievers (OR: 2.630), French Bulldogs (OR: 2.050), Golden Retrievers (OR: 1.949), and American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.592) were mainly affected by low-grade MCTs. The high risk of MCT was calculated to be at the age of 4–6 years for Labrador Retrievers (OR: 2.686) and 7–10 years for Boxers (OR: 2.956) and French Bulldogs (OR: 9.429). MCTs were significantly more often located on the trunk in French Bulldogs (OR: 4.680), American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.520), and Labrador Retrievers (OR: 1.948). There was no statistically significant correlation between gender and the occurrence of MCTs in the breeds.

Conclusions: The breed-predicated differences in the clinical course of MCTs suggest a genetic background for the tumours.

Open access

Fei-Fei Chang, Chang-Chieh Chen, Shao-Hung Wang and Chiou-Lin Chen

Abstract

Introduction: Laryngeal swab samples collected from three waterfowl slaughterhouses in central Taiwan were cultured and suspected isolates of Riemerella anatipestifer were identified by API 20NE and 16S rDNA PCR.

Material and Methods: Serum agglutination was used for serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested.

Results: Seventy-six R. anatipestifer isolates were detected, and the prevalences in the ducks and geese were 12.3% (46/375) and 8.0% (30/375), respectively. The positive isolation rates were 65.6% for all arriving waterfowl, 76.0% for birds in the holding area, 1.6% for defeathered carcasses, but zero for degummed carcasses. A PCR examination detected R. anatipestifer in the slaughtering area frequently. Serotype B was dominant in both duck (34.8%) and goose (46.7%) isolates, but the wide serotype distribution may very well impede vaccination development. All isolates were resistant to colistin, and 79.7% were resistant to more than three common antibiotics.

Conclusion: The results proved that most ducks had encountered antibiotic-resistant R. anatipestifer in rearing, which suggests that the bacterium circulates in asymptomatic waterfowl. It is worth noting that most waterfowl farms were found to harbour R. anatipestifer, and contaminated slaughterhouses are a major risk factor in its spread. Effective prevention and containment measures should be established there to interrupt the transmission chain of R. anatipestifer.

Open access

Lu-Lu Wang, Shi-Ying Lu, Pan Hu, Bao-Quan Fu, Yan-Song Li, Fei-Fei Zhai, Dan-Di Ju, Shi-Jun Zhang, Bing Su, Yu Zhou, Zeng-Shan Liu and Hong-Lin Ren

Abstract

Introduction: Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a bifunctional protein with glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity. Previous studies have shown a significant positive correlation between the intracellular survival ability of Brucella and Prdx6. Here, the Prdx6 enzyme with a single activity was constructed to facilitate study of the relationship between the single function of Prdx6 and Brucella infection.

Material and Methods: The target open reading frame (ORF) DNAs of Prdx6 with a single active centre were prepared using gene splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR), and the recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmids inserted by Prdx6 with the single activity centre were constructed and transfected into murine Raw264.7 macrophages. The glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity of the constructed Prdx6 were examined.

Results: The core centres (Ser32 and Cys47) of Prdx6 were successfully mutated by changing the 94th nucleotide from T to G and the 140th nucleotide from G to C in the two enzyme activity cores, respectively. The constructed recombinant plasmids of Prdx6 with the single active centre were transfected into murine macrophages showing the expected single functional enzyme activity, which MJ33 or mercaptosuccinate inhibitors were able to inhibit.

Conclusion: The constructed mutants of Prdx6 with the single activity cores will be a benefit to further study of the biological function of Prdx6 with different enzyme activity.

Open access

Omar Sadik, Lia Mara Ditu, Irina Gheorghe, Alina Maria Holban, Carmen Curutiu, Gratiela Gradisteanu Parcalabioru, Ionela Avram, Otilia Banu, Othman Al-mahdawy, Dunya A. Alkurjia and Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc

Abstract

In recent years, a significant number of epidemiological variations have been observed for fungal infections. In immunocompromised patients, Candida albicans is crucially involved in invasive infections, mostly originating in respiratory tract colonization. The global rise in candidiasis has led researchers to investigate possible correlations between fungal strains virulence profiles and their pathogenic potential, among the most investigated genes being those involved in adherence and biofilm development. In this study, we established the adherence gene profiles of C. albicans strains isolated from respiratory tract secretions in patients hospitalized for cardiovascular diseases and correlated them with the ability of the respective strains to colonize the epithelial cells and form biofilms on the inert substratum. The strains isolated from the lower respiratory tract exhibited the highest adherence capacity and were intensive biofilm producers. The SAP9, ALS3, ALS5, and ALS6 genes were the most frequently detected. There was a significant association between the presence of ALS 3 gene and the cellular substrate colonizing potential of the harboring strains. We also found that the strains expressing SAP9 were more virulent in the phenotypic assays. Detecting the presence of adherence genes from different clinical isolates is a cost-effective tool that would allow researchers to predict the virulence of a certain strain and estimate its potential to adhere to host cells and develop biofilms.

Open access

Emőke Horváth, Adina Huțanu, Alex Orădan, Liviu Chiriac, Daniela Lucia Muntean, Előd-Ernő Nagy and Minodora Dobreanu

Abstract

Introduction: Experimental acute cerebral ischemia quickly triggers circulating inflammatory cells, provoking infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in the damaged brain region. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alleviate the ischemic deterioration, however, their potential effect on bone marrow cell mobilization is less known.

Materials and methods: healthy male Wistar rats were submitted to intraperitoneal saline injection (n=10, sham Group), transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and saline injection (n=10, placebo Group), tMCAO and highly purified fish-oil administration (n=10, T Group). At the two latter groups, twenty-four hours after tMCAO, MRI scans were performed to identify the ischemic regions; the eligible animals were sacrificed, the left parietal bones being removed and subjected to qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical analysis.

Results: The active hematopoietic surface was maximal at the T-Group, being significantly lower in the P- and S-Groups (p=0.006 and p= 0.017). The MPO positive surface increased significantly in the T-compared to the S-Group (22.57± 0.86 % vs. 18.87± 0.68%, p= 0.004). Arg1 expression was significantly higher (p=0.001), while iNOS expression was lower (p=0.004) in the T- than in the P-Group, but similar to the S-group. The Arg1/iNOS2 ratio was higher in the FO-treated than in the P-group (p<0.001).

Conclusion: the ischemic conditions triggered granulopoiesis and the increase of iNOS2 positive, type M1 macrophage in the rat bone marrow. Fish-oil treatment generated the expansion of overall hematopoietic surface along with normalization of iNOS2, up-regulating the potentially protective Arg1 positive M2 type macrophages and causing a significant shift in the M2/M1 ratio.

Open access

Li-Wei Gao and Guo-Liang Wang

Abstract

Lung cancer (LC), which includes small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is common and has a high fatality rate. This study aimed to reveal the prognostic mechanisms of LC. GSE30219 was extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and included 293 LC samples and 14 normal lung samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the Limma package, and subjected to pathway enrichment analysis using DAVID. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) targeting the DEGs were predicted using Webgestalt. Cytoscape software was used to build a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and to identify significant network modules. Survival analysis was conducted using Survminer and Survival packages, and validation was performed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. The good and poor prognosis groups contained 518 DEGs. miR-190, miR-493, and miR-218 for the upregulated genes and miR-302, miR-200, and miR-26 for the downregulated genes were predicted. Three network modules (module 1, 2, and 3) were identified from the PPI network. CDK1, MCM10, and NDC80 were the core nodes of module 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In module 1, CDK1 interacted with both CCNB1 and CCNB2. Additionally, CDK1, CCNB1, CCNB2, MCM10, and NDC80 expression levels correlated with clinical survival and were identified as DEGs in both GSE30219 and the TCGA dataset. miR-190, miR-493, miR-218, miR-200, and miR-302 might act in LC by targeting the DEGs. CDK1, CCNB1, CCNB2, MCM10, and NDC80 might also influence the prognosis of LC.

Open access

Cornelia Lazăr, Marin Vozian, Valeriana Pantea, Ana Mișina and Olga Tagadiuc

Abstract

Purpose: Ovarian torsion, being a gynecological emergency, requires to be rapidly diagnosed and treated with minimal consequences on ovarian function after the removal of torsion. As ischemia modified albumin (IMA) is considered a good biomarker in diverse ischemic diseases, the aim of our study was to determine the effect of different ovarian torsion/detorsion models on serum and ovarian homogenates levels of IMA in an experimental study.

Methods: IMA was measured in the serum and ovarian homogenates of 7 groups of female rats (10 animals in each group): 1 - control (no intervention); 2 - sham (only laparotomy); 3 - ischemia group: 3 hours ovarian torsion (OT); 4 - 3 hours OT (ischemia), 1 hour simple reperfusion; 5 - 3 hours ischemia, 1 hour controlled reperfusion that was assured during the first two minutes by opening and closing the clips on the ovarian pedicles in 10 seconds intervals, followed by simple reperfusion; 6 - 3 hours ischemia, 24 hours simple reperfusion; 7 - 3 hours OT, 24 hours controlled reperfusion. The results were analyzed by Welch’s ANOVA and Spearman correlation.

Results: Ischemia increases the IMA in both serum and ovarian homogenates compared to control and sham groups. The controlled reperfusion groups had a statistically significant lower IMA in serum compared to simple reperfusion groups. IMA was found to be higher in the ovarian homogenates of simple reperfusion compared to controlled reperfusion groups.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that controlled reperfusion prevent the processes that increase the IMA in ovarian torsion.

Open access

Kerem Teke, Hasan Yilmaz, Mehmet Esad Kosem, Mustafa Yuksekkaya, Sema Yusufoglu, Busra Yaprak Bayrak, Yusufhan Yazir, Demir Kursat Yildiz and Ozdal Dillioglugil

Abstract

Purpose: The implantable bladder cancer (BC) models allow the researchers to perform rapid and useful experiments for BC. We investigated the implantation success of BC cells obtained from Wistar rats (grown in vitro), into bladders of syngeneic Wistar rats, which are commonly used in the laboratories.

Methods: The Nara Bladder Tumor No.2 (NBT-II) BC cells induced with 4-hydroxybutylnitrosamine were grown with passages in Kocaeli University Center for Stem-Cell and Gene-Therapies. After urothelial denudation, 2x106 NBT-II cells were then implanted into bladders of 24 female Wistar rats (aged 7-8 weeks). The rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups; three instillation groups (8 per group) and one sham-operated control group consisting of 6 rats. First, second and third instillation groups were sacrificed at days 7, 14, and 21, respectively, and, bladders were histopathologically evaluated for BC according to WHO / International Society of Urological Pathology.

Results: All tumors were pT1 (including 1 rat that prematurely died at 5th day), except one rat that died prematurely at 8th day had pT2 tumor. Implantation rates were 28.58% (2/7) in the first group, and 42.85% (3/7) in the second, for a cumulative rate of 35.71% (5/14) in these two-groups (until 14th day). Interestingly, there was no tumor in the third group, but there was an inflammatory granulation tissue.

Conclusion: Seeding NBT-II cells into bladders of Wistar rats was described, successfully tested and demonstrated in this study. This implantable BC model of Wistar rats may be improved to increase the success rate of BC cell implantation in new studies with higher number of animals.