This paper studies 38 splits that occurred between 1995 and 2020 in the Czech Republic. Although the initial splits, that took place during the time of democratic transition, were driven by perceived local identity and the historical memory of being a former independent municipality, the splits after 1995 were predominantly driven by economic factors, be it objective underinvestment and a perceived grievance that the mother municipality was not taking care of its fringe parts. In all cases, the mother municipality had failed to communicate with the initiator of a referendum. However, if the central municipality invested in its parts and its political leaders communicated with its citizens, the municipality did not lose its part despites the attempts of secessionist leaders.
The paper explores and explains the fragmentation process in Croatian local government during the transition period from 1990 onwards. Special focus is given to the emergence of new municipalities (municipal splits/secessions) that occurred after the new two-tier local government system was established in 1993. Excessive fragmentation of territorial structure at the beginning of the 1990s was a systematic and centrally driven reform that was meant to break with the inherited local government model and break up its territorial structure as radically as possible. While the initial overhaul in 1993 was mostly the result of conscious policy implemented in a top-down manner, subsequent municipal splits were mostly the outcome of local initiatives and lobbying, and were predominantly shaped by local, primarily economic factors, whereas political and cultural factors were of secondary importance. The national institutional context, including criteria and procedural rules for splits, were quite liberal during this whole period, with a moderate tightening-up trajectory. The number of municipalities finally stabilised in 2006, since when there have been no more splits.
Walat Formation is equivalent to Bayah Formation. This formation is the beginning of Bogor basin deposition. In this case, age and environment of this formation have been analyzed by previous researchers, but the results of age and environment interpretations have different ranges, especially from its palynological aspect which until now Walat Formation is rarely analyzed using this aspect. This research was conducted to identify the age and depositional environment of Walat Formation in Sukabumi region by using pollen and spores to confirm different interpretations of previous studies. Measure section was carried out in sampling and chemical treatment method was carried out to see palynomorph content in the rock. Furthermore, data analysis was carried out with range of interval zones and pollen grouping based on their environment.
The results show that Walat Formation has Late Eocene age based on the interval zone between first occurrence of Verrucatosporites usmensis and Meyeripollis naharkotensis, and the last occurence of Proxapertites operculatus, Proxapertites cursus, and Cicatricosisporites eocenicus. Walat Formation has fluvial depositional environment characterized by the dominance of Proxapertites operculatus and Proxapertites cursus. The results of this study confirm that the Walat Formation has an Eocene age and a fluvial depositional environment from a palinological aspect.
Aeromagnetic data acquired over part of the Anambra Basin is analyzed to determine the structural pattern and sedimentary thickness of the basin. The study area is covered by high resolution aeromagnetic data on sheets 301 (Udi), 302 (Nkalagu), 312 (Okigwe) and 313 (Afikpo), and lies between latitudes 5o30’0’‘-6o30’0’‘ and longitudes 7o0’0”-8o0’0”. The whole area was divided into 25 overlapping blocks of 37.2km2 each and a 2D energy spectral analysis was carried out. Total magnetic intensity data was subjected to filtering and analytical techniques to determine the structural pattern, mineralization potential, depth to the basement, variation in the sedimentary thickness. The structural map generated using the vertical derivatives shows that the major structural orientation of the area is in the ENE-WSW trend and the minor trend is the NW to SE direction widespread all over the area. These structures are as a result of the various near-surface magnetic intrusion within the study area. The spectral analysis result shows two depth layers, the deep and the shallow depth, the depth to magnetic basement for the deep anomalous source ranges from 3.3km to 4.8 4km with an average depth of 3.99km, while the depth to shallow magnetic sources ranges between 0.46km to 0.67km and an average of 0.56km within the area. The mineralization pattern in this area follows the ENE-WSW direction.
Floods of the Mayurakshi River Basin (MRB) have been historically documented since 1860. The high magnitude, low-frequency flood events have drastically changed to low magnitude, high-frequency flood events in the post-dam period, especially after the 1950s, when the major civil structures (Massanjore dam, Tilpara barrage, Brahmani barrage, Deucha barrage, and Bakreshwar weir) were constructed in the MRB. The present study intends to find out the nature of flood frequency using the extreme value method of Gumbel and Log-Pearson type III (LP-III). The results show that the highest flood magnitude (11,327 m3 s−1) was observed during 1957–2009 for the Tilpara barrage with a return probability of 1.85% and the lowest (708 m3 s−1) recorded by the Bakreshwar weir during 1956–77 with a return probability of 4.55%. In the present endeavour, we have computed the predicted discharge for the different return periods, like 2, 5, 10, 25, 50,100, and 200 years. The quantile-quantile plot shows that the expected discharge calculated using LP-III is more normally distributed than that of Gumbel. Moreover, Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) test, Anderson–Darling (AD), and x2 distribution show that LP-III distribution is more normally distributed than the Gumbel at 0.01 significance level, implying its greater reliability and acceptance in the flood simulation of the MRB.
Studies conducted so far suggest that SEZs are not treated by local authorities as the main mechanism of job creation in a given region. The objective of this paper is to highlight potential mechanisms through which SEZs impact labour markets in poviats (counties) in Poland. To this end we conducted a comparative analysis of changes that had taken place in the labour market over the period 2004–2016 in two groups of poviats with the highest unemployment rate reported in 2004: with and without SEZs. The study does not allow us to unambiguously conclude that SEZs contributed to the improvement of labour market situation in poviats with the highest unemployment rate in Poland. That can be attributed to the fact that SEZs in Poland are highly fragmented as well as to SEZs investors being able to select locations for their investment projects in relatively better developed regions.
The article covers the geographical features of the organisation of medical tourism for a group of the world's population suffering from a brain disease – dementia. The main attention is paid to the development of this type of tourism in Russia in comparison with some other countries. The question is raised about the involvement of these people in tourism activities, which could help to improve their health status and improve the living environment of societies. The main problems faced by tourists with the disease dementia are considered. The authors advocate that freedom of movement is the inalienable right of every person. Therefore, the creation of conditions for comfortable travel of people even with mental defects becomes a necessary measure to ensure the sustainable development of accessible tourism infrastructure. The recommendations are given, the implementation of which will allow organising an efficiently working tourist and recreational system that satisfies the needs of these peculiar recreational tourists, as well as the interests of all society representatives.
We still know relatively little about the processes of economic transformation in medium-sized towns, which are the cornerstone of the settlement system of many rural areas, together with small towns. This paper considers a group of 39 towns in Northern Italy, located in the area between Asti and Rovigo. Using data from the Italian National Institute of Data Statistics (ISTAT), we investigated the dynamics of the number of the employed at businesses in the periods of 2001–2011 and 2012–2017, the different specialisations of the towns and their ability to attract employees within the respective employment areas. Locally differentiated performance and evolutionary trajectories are evident, preventing us from being able to think of medium-sized (but also small) towns as a coherent whole. It is also clear how the drive towards centralising employees in towns increased following the Great Recession.
In Deutschland, das vom demographischen Wandel besonders betroffen ist, gilt die Steigerung der Erwerbsbeteiligung als wichtige arbeitsmarktpolitische Zielsetzung, weil damit demographisch bedingten Engpässen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt entgegengewirkt werden kann. Spielraum für eine Erhöhung der Erwerbsbeteiligung besteht nicht nur bei bestimmten Personengruppen, sondern auch in räumlicher Hinsicht. Der Beitrag analysiert deshalb auf der Ebene der deutschen Kreisregionen die regionalen Unterschiede in der Erwerbsbeteiligung von Männern und Frauen verschiedener Altersgruppen. Insbesondere wird der Frage nachgegangen, inwieweit die regionale Variation der Erwerbsbeteiligung mit regionalen Unterschieden in der Arbeitsmarktlage verknüpft ist. Daneben werden weitere Zusammenhänge mithilfe multipler Regressionen geprüft. Die Analyseergebnisse können über die sogenannte Entmutigungshypothese verstanden werden, wonach ungünstige regionale Arbeitsmarktverhältnisse einen negativen Einfluss auf die regionale Erwerbsbeteiligung ausüben. Für das regionale Lohnniveau lässt sich nur ein minimaler, meist positiver Zusammenhang mit der Erwerbsbeteiligung feststellen, der mit den sich gegenseitig kompensierenden Effekten des Lohns interpretiert werden kann. Das regionale Qualifikationsniveau hängt mit der Erwerbsbeteiligung im mittleren und höheren Alter positiv zusammen. Weitere Befunde unterstreichen schließlich die Bedeutung von ganztägigen Kinderbetreuungseinrichtungen für die Erwerbsbeteiligung von Frauen und zunehmend auch von Männern.
This research attempts to answer whether Cittaslow is a myth or an effective model for development for Taraklı, a small town in the Sakarya province of Turkey. The study was designed and analysed using the mixed method research model. The results are as follows. Since Taraklı became a Cittaslow, the number of tourists increased which ultimately helped to fight against unemployment and also increased income of people. Women's participation in the labour force had increased and their representation in public places was enhanced. Important steps were taken towards the preservation of cultural heritage. Along with quantitative and qualitative improvements in green areas, the local people's awareness of environmental protection has increased.