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The work aimed to determine the scope of the good governance approach in the local development planning of local governments of rural and urban-rural gminas in the eastern peripheral voivodeships of Poland (Lubelskie, Podlaskie and Świętokrzyskie Voivodeships) and how the implementation of good governance principles in the process of elaborating and implementing local development strategies correlates with assessments of the strategy's suitability as a development management tool. The research used methods of analysis and criticism of the literature, statistical analysis and a survey method using an interview questionnaire addressed to local government authorities. According to our research, especially at the stage of developing the strategy, actions were taken regarding local-community and local-authority participation and active communication between the two, but a lower level of community participation was found at the implementation stage. There was a statistically significant relationship between adopting the principle of participation and accountability in preparing and implementing the strategy and how suitable the strategy was assessed to be as a tool for development management. It seems reasonable to apply the principles of good governance more widely in planning local development, not only while developing the strategy, but also in its implementation.


Dynamic economic expansion of metropolitan regions in post-communist central Europe induces dynamic traffic growth, which calls for new transport network solutions and improvements to existing transport infrastructure within the regions. This is also the case of Bratislava as the capital city of post-communist Slovakia, which has recently been facing new economic and urban development challenges. A booming labour market, intensive suburbanisation processes, traffic expansion and urban (re-)development bring new conflicts and demand for grand-scale transport projects. An ongoing upgrade of the motorway system in the region of Bratislava will result in the construction of a substantial part of an orbital motorway surrounding the southern and eastern parts of the city. The potential effects of the motorway network-upgrade projects on the city urbanism are probably immense. This paper attempts to evaluate the possible changes in accessibility within the road network after completion of motorway upgrading project D4/R7 in the metropolitan area of Bratislava. The interaction potential of both population and jobs was applied here to assess possible impacts of road network enhancement on accessibility of places of residence and of work.


Our paper aims to analyse the hypothesis that locations with a higher Human Development Index (HDI) present lower rates of motorcycle use. For this we use an econometric model for 117 countries on five continents for the years 2013, 2015 and 2018. We assume that when a country reaches a higher level of development, its population is more likely to experience improvements in the quality of life, which also affects the quality of individual transportation, public transport and roads. Increases in income discourage the use of motorcycles, mainly due to their low safety and comfort features. Our results indicate that rates of motorcycle use in countries increase as HDI rises, before reaching a maximum point and then declining. Therefore, this evidence suggests that a certain degree of development discourages the use of this means of transport in favour of others.


The paper reflects the dynamics of changes in standard of living in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania during the post-Soviet period.


The more than twenty years that have passed since perestroika failed to lead to the expected positive shifts in economy in RNO-Alania. In ratings of regions by population living standards, the republic was consistently among the last places.


To show the discrepancy between the modern level of economic development and the standard of life in the RNO-Alania.


The work uses comparative analysis of indicators of living standard and indicators reflecting the structural and dynamic characteristics of economic processes.


Official statistics show growth in almost all socio-economic indicators in RNO-Alania. This apparent increase in living standards does not correspond to the low ranking of RNO-Alania, which is consistently in the bottom ten of the rating of Russian regions. The analysis of other indicators determining the population's quality of life, such as: the ecological condition of the territory, the developmental level of health and education institutions, life expectancy, and availability of transport, information and communication networks all correlated weakly with the real socio-economic situation in the region. The study of the republic's districts showed a high unemployment rate due to the lack of industrial and agricultural production, the underdevelopment of small and medium-sized businesses, and low wages. There is an outflow of working-age population to the city of Vladikavkaz and from the districts to outside the republic.


The deficit in the republic's budget persisted during the research period, despite the apparent growth in the gross product and revenue part of the budget, but the volume of expenditures is growing at a faster rate. The main reason for this is the sharp decline in industrial production, and the influence of loss-making enterprises that do not generate income in the budget. Living standards are rising only thanks to grants from the federal centre.


In order to remove the republic from its depressed state it is necessary to increase the fixed capital, to control the process of effective use of the available production capacities, and to invest in a recreational industry that uses natural resources and does not require significant investment.


The article concerns the legal dimension of local communities’ participation in selected aspects of shaping space in Poland. The results of the review of legal regulations are presented, including interpretations of regulations made by other authors. Examples taken from previous research were used to show the functioning of these regulations in practice and their consequences. The aim of the article is to assess the legal conditions for the participation of local communities in spatial planning, planning of protected areas and location of investments in Poland, in relation to selected theoretical concepts, as well as to assess the consequences of these conditions. In the legal dimension, the participation of the local community in shaping space is symbolic, in the terminology of the Arnstein ladder. The dominant model is a non-binding opinion on ready-made projects and plans, instead of collaboration in their creation.


The article presents the accessibility of workplaces in Szczecin using the method of potential and cumulative accessibility for commuting by public transport. The public transport commuting times used in the study were generated using the public transport model, which was developed based on data in the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) format. The results of potential accessibility by public transport were calculated for several selected time thresholds in the morning rush hours between 7 a.m. and 9 a.m.. On the other hand, cumulative accessibility is characterised by variability of travel times for 8 a.m., which is calculated in 10- to 60-minute intervals of travel time. The aim of this study is to identify workplaces in Szczecin that are situated in areas where accessibility is more dependent on the parameters of the public-transport timetable. In addition, a possibility to define the optimal journey length was assumed so that it would regard the largest number of jobs. The use of the two indicated research methods for the accessibility of workplaces in Szczecin provides a result in the form of better- and less-accessible areas of the city as regards the labour market. The results regarding the accessibility of workplaces using the two methods identify places of increased demand for commuting by public transport during the morning rush hours.


Understanding the city as a whole, its functioning, and needs of its inhabitants is currently becoming an important issue. Solutions introduced in cities based on the principles of the concept of walkable city and universal design are becoming more and more popular around the globe. Both topics have been so far discussed separately, although due to the requirements of social life and introduction of new legal regulations, they should be analysed together. The objective of the paper is to examine the impact of the design concepts of walkable city and universal design on the practical aspects of life of people with disabilities in selected cities, with particular consideration of obstacles existing in public spaces. The main contribution of this study is twofold. In the methodological aspect, a synthetic index was developed based on the ‘Ten Steps of Walkability’. In practical terms, it was analysed from both the spatial aspect using UD principles (field inventory) and social perspective (semi-structured interviews with experts and a questionnaire survey). As a result, a mental map was developed, presenting obstacles and barriers in public spaces and in buildings relevant for people with and without disabilities (hearing, movement, and visual impairments). The results can be used for universal design worldwide to improve the accessibility of walkable spaces for people with special needs.


Subject and purpose of work: Running an agricultural activity requires acquiring funds necessary for its functioning and proper development. The most classic examples of financing agricultural activity include all kinds of bank loans used by farmers for the purchase of agricultural land, construction and modernization of buildings, the purchase of machinery and equipment, as well as the establishment of perennial plantations or the purchase of a herd. The aim of the study is to present the possibilities of financing agricultural activity by cooperative banks in the Podlaskie Voivodeship.

Materials and methods: The study used the method of observation and analysis of banking materials. The source of information was the data of cooperative banks, the Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture and the Central Statistical Office.

Results: Over the centuries, cooperative banks have developed techniques, methods and practices in the field of agricultural lending. They have somehow specialized in this area and offer farmers a full range of commercial loans. They have also actively participated in the redistribution of funds under the implementation of the EU Common Agricultural Policy. for many years. Currently operating farms have access to many forms of financing (the most developed and available in banks, however, are loans) depending on their financial needs or planned investments.

Conclusions: Among many forms of foreign capital in agriculture, it is preferential loans that play a significant role as a stimulus to improve farm activities. Granting loans by cooperative banks is one of the basic tasks in their operations. Bank loans play an important role in changes taking place in agriculture. They generally do not violate the principles of market economy and financing rules, provided that the financial and credit policy takes into account the needs and limitations resulting from the current and forecast economic situation of farms.


Subject and purpose of work: The basic challenge for post-industrial areas is their inclusion in the socio-economic circulation and assigning them new functions in urban structures.

Materials and methods: This paper focuses on the analysis of selected cases of transformation of post-industrial areas for the following purposes: service, housing, cultural and educational.

Results: Despite a significant possibility of developing post-industrial areas for housing, cultural and educational or service purposes, as shown by the present case study, many barriers for land redevelopment can still be found. They include, among others, information, financial or system barriers.

Conclusions: Unregulated legal status, insufficient technical infrastructure, existing buildings, existing ecological contamination, and above all, limited availability of data and information on the condition of a given area.