This research is conducted qualitatively and aimed at patterning and describing clause and sentence structure in Lampung language through the configuration of its constituents. Regarding the constituents, Lampung has two types of clause: minor and major clauses. A minor clause is indicated by only one constituent, which is commonly a subject, predicate or adjunct. Regarding its function, it can be classified as vocative, shown by exclamation (Wuy!, Huy!); a greeting, as shown by an expression (tabikpun ngalam pukha); and an Arabic greeting (assalamualaikum). On the other hand, a major clause minimally consists of a subject and predicate, and apart from these there can also be an object, complement and adverbial. Furthermore, this research finds various categories that can act as predicative constituents: they are a verb/verbal phrase, adjective/adjective phrase, and noun/nominal phrase. Additionally, a copular verb (iyulah) and existential marker (wat) can also be the predicate. This research also reveals that in a sentence two or more clauses are connected by a conjunction, and then this conjunction becomes an indicator of dependent clauses. Also, a dependent clause can be found after the subject or the object of the independent clause.
Given that the notion of telicity was simply defined by English linguists as a situation which tends towards a goal, this paper will additionally explain and define telicity in the English language. Moreover, the issue of telicity in the Serbian and Romanian relevant linguistic literature has been scarcely analysed. This paper aims to ascertain and define telicity as an indispensable semantic characteristic of Serbian and Romanian verbs. Since the paper proves that the concept of telicity can be detected in languages other than English, telicity can and should be considered a linguistic universal.
The paper deals with applications of the concept of double articulation in studies of linguistic and non‐linguistic phenomena. It traces extensions, shifts and corrections effected by the transition from linguistics to semiotics. Particular attention is payed to possibilities and problems that have arisen in theoretical reflections of paintings and music. An example of such analyses is Lévi‐Strauss’ study of artworks.
The present paper brings into discussion a very topical issue for students and teachers alike nowadays – the development of digital competence for students in the field of humanities. The research focuses on investigating possible changes in the attitudes of philology students towards the use of technology, as they are facing the reality of having to adapt their learning and/or their teaching to the new educational demands. Since the present educational context involved a quick change to online teaching and learning, the research focused on how the group of students in humanities have adapted to this setting, whether operating in this digitalised learning/teaching environment has any implications for their future career and whether the identified changes are connected to any lessons learnt both in their capacity of learners and teachers.
This study analyses two seminal American memoirs that depict female captivity: A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson (1682) by Mary Rowlandson and Harriet Jacobs’ Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861). My aim is to discuss, using the tools of Critical Race Theory, the intersections of gender and race, focusing on how the two women’s femininity, as well as their individuality, is linked to Christianity and motherhood.
The aim of the article is to examine the language used by an emerging online community known as incels. Incels are “involuntarily celibate” men who gather online to share their frustration and resentment. They blame their predicament on their alleged ugliness, as well as on the structure of modern Western society in general, and women’s behaviour in particular. Hate speech and violent language flourish on incel online forums to such an extent that most of their websites are taken down, one by one, due to breaches of rules around violent content. In the present article I aim to analyze the language used by incels, focusing on the dehumanizing metaphors used in order to describe women, who are the main target of incels’ hatred. This paper was realized within the theoretical framework of cognitive linguistics and critical discourse analysis with special emphasis on conceptual metaphor theory.
The article reflects the linguistic work of Ján Horecký in connection with hyper syntax and text linguistics. In his work Základy jazykovedy (Outline of linguistics) Ján Horecký remarks (1974, p. 90) that one of the principles of text construction is the literal repetition of certain words. We discuss this Horecký’s assumption and describe its consequences for the langue parole opposition and the concepts of textual isotopy and textual cohesion. The main task of the article is to examine Horeský’s assumption. For these purposes, we present an authorship attribution analysis of literary works by two Slovak authors: Svetozár Hurban Vajanský and Martin Kukučín. We focus on low‐frequency lexicon, i.e. hapax legomena, which are supposed to be independent of the authorial style (e.g. Binongo, 2003) and should reflect random circumstances of communication (de Saussure, 1996, p. 50; Bloomfield, 1933, p. 170). This means that if the structure of the text were to be affected by the repetition of certain words, the low frequency layer of the lexicon should contain evidence of this repetition with a low degree of dependence on the content and style of the literary work (Baayen, 1996). The analysis and its presentation is based on separate processing of hapax legomena and their n‐grams, cosine dissimilarity and multidimensional scaling (Torgerson, 1952). Contrary to the general notion of the text structure, we conclude that the authorial texts are based on the repetition of certain word forms and word forms combinations (by n‐gram analysis), even in the level of low‐frequency words.
In the beginning of the 1950s, using the thematic vowel as a criterion for dividing verbs into conjugation classes became the topic of a major linguistic discussion, since the historical understanding of the vowel was no longer applicable for the compilation of practical handbooks. Proposals presented in the discussion aimed to discover a functionalistic replacement for the concept of the thematic vowel. Despite this radical attitude, partakers of the discussion were not able to avoid the mixing of contemporary and historical perspectives. The discussion on the nature of this segment found itself in a cul‐de‐sac. What is the segment’s function? Does the vowel represent a part of the stem or a part of the suffix? Or is it autonomous? These dilemmas were solved in 1964 when Ján Horecký proposed new principles for morphematic division in Slovak, which upgraded the then‐existing building of – not only – morphematic models to new qualitative levels.