Results of investigations on the patterns of distribution and dispersal of alien species of trees and shrubs in the territory of a steppe protected area, Yelanetskyi Step Nature Reserve (Mykolaiv Region, southern Ukraine), are presented. We registered within this protected area 10 alien woody species. For the most widespread ones (Ulmus pumila L., Gleditsia triacanthos L., Elaeagnus angustifolia L., Robinia pseudoacacia L.), we carried out ecological analyses. In order to establish the scope of impact of ecological factors upon these species, their specificity, and interdependence between ecological factors, the phytoindication method was applied (Didukh, 2012). The results of our analysis conducted on 12 main ecological factors (as outlined by Didukh, 2011), such as soil water regime (Hd), variability of damping (Fh), soil aeration (Ae), soil acidity (Rc), nitrogen content (Nt), salt regime (Sl), carbonate content in soil (Ca), thermoregime (Tm), climate humidity (Om), continentality (Kn), cryoregime (Cr), and light intensity (Lc), show that dispersal of model alien species does not have ecological limitation. However, E.angustifolia and R.pseudoacacia have the strongest capacity to penetrate the steppe communities, especially disturbed ones. Further dispersal of these alien species in the studied area and adjacent territories is hampered only by the integrity of the structure of steppe communities.
The article deals with the contamination of soil in the vicinity of the D1 motorway caused by the application of chemical de-icing agents in winter. In the selected area, during a period of one year (from October 2017 to October 2018), soil samples were regularly collected once a month at five different distances from the road. Chloride concentrations in aqueous extracts of the soil were monitored and the degree of toxicity was established for the selected living organisms. The resulting chloride load was evaluated with respect to the precipitation activity and the amount of de-icing salt applied in the area. The highest concentrations of chlorides were found at a distance of 2 m from the road. At the distance of 20 m from the road, the concentration of chlorides in the soil was approaching the chloride concentration found in the referential background set for the selected locality. The concentrations of chlorides at the first three measured distances from the road corresponded to the quantity of de-icing salt applied and the precipitation activity recorded during the relevant months. The maximum concentrations were reached in April 2018. Ecotoxicological testing of aqueous extracts of soil did not confirm any significant toxicity to the selected living organisms. From the tested organisms, the white mustard was identified to be the most sensitive to this type of toxicity; the increased toxicity was observed only for aqueous extracts of soil samples collected at distances dI (0 m) and dII (1 m), thus, it could have been related to the increased concentration of chlorides during the relevant period.
Tourism is an industry with a strong long-term potential of becoming one of the key industries in securing the country’s economic growth. Tourists are nowadays interested in not only getting to know the cultural-historical peculiarities, but also the way of life and cultural traditions of the inhabitants of the individual regions. Kysuce region is characterised by scattered settlement, which used to be a significant type of settlement in remote and inaccessible parts of the area in the past. Nowadays, however, the majority of the objects of the scattered settlement either serve as holiday chalets or are uninhabited.The aim of this paper is to evaluate the recreational potential of tourism in Kysuce region. Based on the established methodology, the individual villages were divided into five categories: areas with less suitable potential of tourism development (PTD), areas with suitable PTD, areas with quality PTD, areas with PTD of high quality and areas with the most significant PTD. These categories have been established based on the point evaluation of the potential of input indicators – natural potential, cultural-historical potential, recreational infrastructure and environmental infrastructure. The most significant PTD in the monitored area is the village of Oščadnica (279 points), and the villages of Horný Vadičov (231 points), Raková (224 points) and Nová Bystrica (219.5 points) were evaluated as the areas with PTD of high quality. Agro-tourism in this region is, however, the least developed, despite the location of the region being very favourable for such an activity. Its development could lower unemployment and offer a source of income of the inhabitants, or reduce movement of the inhabitants into other regions of Slovakia. Subsequently, the character of the landscape with all its key functions for sustaining the quality of the environment could be preserved.
Climate change is becoming increasingly frequent. This paper presents the relationship between climate change and the appearance of certain pathogens in oak forests in area Šumadija (central Serbia). The aim of the work is based on experimental sample of land, to carry out research in healthy and infected oak forests and to determine the effect of pathogenic fungi: Microsphera alphitoides and Ophiostoma quercus Armillaria mellea, and the impact in growth in oak forests. Research was conducted on three experimental fields. One pathogen was identified in each experimental field.
The effect of fungi is followed by a different soil depth, and in the root zone in oak forests. Furthermore, our goal was to reveal the behavior of fungi in old and young oak forests. The tests were done on nutritive substrates and land suspensions. The research yielded satisfactory definite results, that will be the basis for further monitoring and research.
This article is focused on the site conditions of the cultural mountainous West Carpathian landscape (Liptovská Teplička village, Central Slovakia) affected by historical agricultural land use, which also included relief and soil modifications leading to the formation of specific mosaic of agrarian landforms – AL (narrow productive plots separated by balks having character of terraces and mounds). It is based on a pair comparison of sites located side by side; the former is located on the productive plot (former arable land), while the latter is a balk. The pairs were selected in order to capture the representative sample of AL within diverse natural conditions, land cover and management. In order to assess the differences between individual AL, continuous soil water content (SWC) measurements using EC-5 soil moisture sensors were performed. The sensors provided continuous measurements of hourly soil volumetric water content rates (VWC, m3/m3). The data were recorded from April 2018 until December 2018. These data were used to assess individual monitoring localities in terms of SWC temporal stability. Furthermore, at each sampling location, an analysis of soil organic matter content, soil texture and stone content was performed. This research was also supplemented by indirect estimation of some site conditions based on phytoindication method using Ellenberg’s indicator values for moisture, soil reaction, nutrient content, continentality, temperature and light. Our results can be concluded as follows: i) the SWC temporal stability assessment revealed the clear effect of AL, however, it was difficult to identify which factors associated with AL typology were the most significant. The high differences between similar AL types revealed the fact that land use, management and rock content (both at productive plots and balks) affect the SWC temporal stability rather than AL typology and their orientation within the slope, ii) phytoindication method did not show statistically significant differences in site conditions between productive plots and balks, despite the fact that there were some significant differences confirmed in species composition, especially between productive plots and dolomite mounds. These differences are related to a higher number of calciphilous and termophilous species preferring ecotones and forests in mounds and group of mesophilous meadow species in productive plots. In summary, it seems that identified differences in both SWC temporal stability and floristic composition between productive plots and balks reflect the management regime rather than site conditions and formation of mounds represents relatively the most significant impact of traditional agricultural land use on the local environment.
The EU Strategy for the Danube Region represents a new form of territorial cooperation. Its ambition is to establish a mechanism of joint responsibility of the countries in the Danube Region for the economic and social development respecting the preservation of natural and cultural heritage. The Strategy is built on four basic pillars: connectivity, building of prosperity, strengthening of the Danube Region and protection of the environment. The Strategy declares the necessity of interdisciplinarity and integrated approach to building a sustainable development of the Region. The scientific base of such an integrated management concerning the landscape and environment is in general the geosystem approach to the landscape, the managerial basement is the harmonisation of the development of the society with the natural, socio-economic and cultural-historical potential of landscape. The integration of both these bases needs a proper system of mutually complementary scientific methods and their implementation to the institutional tools convenient for the Danube Region. The goal of the article is to outline the possibilities for joining/implementation of scientific methods through legally supported tools to integrated landscape management and regional development.
The blackbird (Turdus merula Linnaeus, 1758; Passeriformes, Turdidae) diet was studied to contribute to the conservation of the species population in transformed forests of the north-eastern part of Ukraine. Four forest ecosystems were studied: 3 model sites in the oak forests, transformed under intensive recreation pressure, and 1 model site in a pine-oak forest. A total of 44 invertebrate taxa, dominated by Insecta (78.1%, n = 1075), were found. The order Lepidoptera (63.5%) prevailed. In the diet of blackbird nestlings, the highest number of taxa (37.1–52.2%) was represented by phytophages. The phytophagous species also constituted the majority of the consumed prey items (58.8–72.0%). Environmental conditions provided an important effect on the diet structure. The most favourable foraging conditions for the species were found in protected natural areas. According to the analysis, the blackbird foraging efficiency was similar in all the studied sites. The highest biodiversity indices were found in a protected area of Homilshanski Forests National Nature Park. Results of the research have indicated a crucial role of T. merula in the population management of potentially dangerous agricultural pests.
As a result of the activity of industrial enterprises, atmospheric air is being contaminated by gaseous pollutants. Such substances as chlorine and hydrogen chloride are considered to be harmful for both humans and plants. Vegetation is a universal filter that is able to combat the environmental pollution by industrial emissions with the help of appropriate technical facilities. The aim of this study is to analyze the level of accumulation of chlorine in the leaves of woody plants that grow in the area of forest plantations of sanitary protection zones of industrial enterprises. The objects of the study were the species of woody plants in the area of protective plantations of a number of enterprises in Zaporizhzhya: ZTMC, ZALК, ZABR, Zaporizhstal, Zaporizhzhya Ferroalloy Plant, Zaporizhvohnetryv, Ukrgrafit and Zaporizhtransformator. We established that during the vegetation period, a gradual accumulation of the element was the most intense in mature leaves, whose growth had already ceased. The maximum amount of chlorine was found at the end of the vegetation period. The concentration of the pollutant in leaves of woody plants in the area of sanitary protection zones of industrial enterprises is linearly proportional to the level of emissions of the pollutant into the atmosphere by a given enterprise. The largest coefficient of relative accumulation of chlorine in the leaves of such plants as Catalpa bignonioides, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Juglans regia, Populus alba, which can be used as information sites for the purpose of bioindication of atmospheric air pollution with chlorides, was established.
In the submitted paper, we have analysed the results of a systematic survey of grassland communities, performed in Hodrušská hornatina highland, in Štiavnické vrchy mountains. The main aims of the research were: i) syntaxonomical classification of grassland vegetation; ii) analysis of the main ecological gradients in species composition; iii) evaluation of the influence of environmental factors on species composition of grasslands. The dataset included 153 phytosociological relevés recorded on grasslands. Grassland communities were classified within five associations: Holcetum lanati, Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, Alchemillo-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, Anthoxantho odorati-Agrostietum tenuis, Onobrychido viciifoliae-Brometum erecti; and the successional and transitional stages belonging to alliances Arrhenatherion elatioris and Bromion erecti. The results of the Detrended Correspondence Analysis support our assumption that the main environmental gradient in species composition on grassland is related to moisture. The results of the Redundancy Analysis show that all used environmental variables explained 3.4% of the variability of the species data. The most important factors affecting the species composition were altitude, slope, distance from settlements, and management.