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Abstract

Introduction

Canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) causes acute infectious diseases in puppies, which show high morbidity and mortality. Better effect of vaccination against these diseases could be achieved with deeper knowledge of CPV-2 genotype dissemination and mutation history. This study investigated CPV-2–positive samples collected recently over a wide region of China.

Material and Methods

A total of 118 faecal samples from dogs identified as CPV-positive were collected from veterinary clinics in central and eastern China. Overall, 16 strains collected from Anhui, 29 from Henan, and 16 from Zhejiang Province were sequenced to determine the genotypic composition of CPV-2 and mutational complexity of CPV-VP2.

Results

The CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c genotypes were detected in Anhui and Henan Provinces, while CPV-2c alone was detected in Zhejiang Province. Sequence analysis of all strains showed 98.5%–99.8%, 98.3%–99.9%, and 98.7%–99.8% identity among the 16 Anhui, 29 Henan, and 16 Zhejiang strains, respectively. Strains collected from Anhui and Henan Provinces showed lower identity (97.0%), suggesting greater genetic divergence in central China. The mutation rates of Henan and Anhui strains were lower than that of Zhejiang strains. Major amino acid mutations occurred at sites 5, 370, 426, and 440. Epitope and entropy analyses implied these sites’ likely conformance to the principles of mutation tendency, complexity, and diversity.

Conclusion

The findings for the evolutionary structure of CPV-2 strains collected from three provinces in central and eastern China advance trend monitoring of the genetic variation in canine parvovirus and point to its implications in the development of novel vaccines.

Abstract

Introduction

Candida species are a natural component of the intestinal tract microflora, but in favourable conditions they can cause superficial, mucosal, or even systemic candidiasis. Poultry production might be a source of human drug-resistant yeast infections, including Candida spp. The limited data concerning the antifungal susceptibility of poultry Candida isolates prompted us to carry out research to determine the susceptibility of isolates from turkey intestinal tracts.

Method and Materials

The beak cavity, crop and cloaca were swabbed of 580 turkeys from 58 flocks in western Poland. The susceptibility tests were conducted using the E-test method with amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole on 52 isolates of C. albicans, C. catenulata, C. glabrata, C. palmioleophila, C. rugosa, C. krusei and C. lusitaniae.

Results

All isolates were susceptible to voriconazole. According to the MIC values obtained for amphotericin B and fluconazole, all Candida spp. isolates were classified as susceptible according to the described breakpoints except for C. krusei, which was the only isolate that was amphotericin B-, fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant. The susceptibility to itraconazole varied: 11 of the Candida isolates were susceptible (21.1%), 29 were dose-dependently susceptible (55.8%), and 12 isolates were resistant (23.1%).

Conclusion

There are few resistant strains of Candida in turkeys, and the drug resistance varies. When Candida passes from turkeys to humans, there is a wide range of antifungal treatment options.

Abstract

Introduction

The influence of inflammation on the patterns of muscarinic 2 and 3 receptor subtypes (M2R and M3R), and α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAChR) expression in the porcine uterus was investigated.

Material and Methods

On day three of the oestrous cycle of gilts aged 7–8 months with body weight 90–120 kg, either an E. coli suspension (E. coli group, n = 5) or saline (Sal group, n = 5) was administered into the uterine horns via laparotomy or only laparotomy was performed on control swine (Ctrl group, n = 5). After eight days, and the onset of severe acute endometritis in the E. coli group, the uterine mRNA and protein receptor expression levels were determined using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, with receptor localisation by immunofluorescence.

Results

The studied receptors were in the luminal epithelium, glands, blood vessels, and myometrial muscle cells of all gilts. The M2R mRNA level was lower in the inflamed endometrium compared to the Ctrl and Sal groups. Also in this tissue, the expression of M3R mRNA and protein was lower than in the Ctrl and Sal groups. The M3R protein level in the bacterially challenged myometrium was found to be increased compared to unadministered groups. In the endometrium of the E. coli group, the α-7 nAChR protein level was lower than in the Sal group, and in the myometrium it was reduced in relation to both the other groups. P values were ≤ 0.05 in all cases.

Conclusion

Inflammation causes alterations in the M2R, M3R, and α-7 nAChR expression in the pig uterus, suggesting their significance in the course and repercussions of uterine inflammation.

Abstract

Introduction

Three strains of the FMD virus (A, O, and SAT 2) were recognised as causes of the FMD circulating in Egypt. The aims of this study were to trace the FMDV isolates from outbreaks in Egypt to understand their epidemiology and evolution and to understand the situation of the vaccine strains compared with the circulating serotypes.

Material and Methods

A meta-analysis was carried out by using the data available for FMD outbreaks in Egypt from GenBank and the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (WRLFMD); a comparison was done with both data sets for the three serotypes. MEGA-X was used for the evolution analysis, through constructions of phylogenetic trees for all sequences recorded in GenBank for each serotype in different Egyptian outbreaks in different years and also within the same year. Additionally, nucleotide substitution rate, molecular clock, and mean evolutionary rates were estimated for the three serotypes to understand and compare their evolution.

Results

Absence of some records of certain serotype outbreaks from the WRLFMD database was noted as were subsequent missing appropriate vaccine programmes. Genetic variation was recorded among the virus isolates within the same years and also the vaccine strain was associated with up to 26 amino acid substitutions. The evolution rate of the SAT2 strain was the highest of the circulating strains. SAT2 had high amino acid substitution per year at an important immunogenic site (130–170), serotype A had less, and serotype O the least.

Conclusion

The need for different strategies for vaccine serotype selection is indicated.

Abstract

Introduction

Gastrointestinal parasites are some of the most common pathogens which are seriously harmful to the camel’s health. The infection status of gastrointestinal parasites in camels (Camelus bactrianus) in the Tianshan Mountains pastoral area in China is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the species and infection intensity of gastrointestinal tract parasites in local camels.

Material and Methods

A total of 362 fresh faecal samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs using the saturated saline floating and natural sedimentation method. The parasite eggs were subjected to morphological and molecular examination and identification, and the infection rate and mean intensity of the parasites were analysed.

Results

A total of 15 gastrointestinal tract parasite species’ eggs were identified, with a detection rate of 100%. Ostertagia spp. (100%) and Trichostrongylus spp. (98.1%) were dominant. Camels were often coinfected by 5–14 species. The average number of eggs per gram of faeces was higher for Ostertagia spp. (298), Haemonchus contortus (176) and Nematodirus spp. (138). The number of species of parasites infecting young camels was significantly lower than that of adult camels, but the infection intensity in young camels was significantly higher.

Conclusion

Gastrointestinal parasites were highly prevalent in camels from the Tianshan Mountains pastoral area in China. This finding provides important epidemiological data for the prevention and control of associated infections in camels.

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the vitamins, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and minerals in the supplement Toryum administered before and during oestrus synchronisation on some fertility parameters of ewes during the non-breeding season.

Material and Methods

The experimental animals were clinically healthy Pirlak ewes, 55–75 days postpartum, aged 2–4 years and weighing 40–50 kg. A sponge was inserted into the vagina for 10 d (G1, n = 30; G2, n = 30) or 14 d (G3, n = 30; G4, n = 30) for oestrus synchronisation, and on the day of removal, 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin was injected. Toryum soft capsules were administered individually (1 capsule/ewe p.o.) to G1 and G3 ewes seven days before the sponge was inserted and on the day it was removed. Oestrus detection was started 12 h after sponge removal. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography on the 30th day after mating.

Results

The pregnancy rate was statistically different between G1 and G4 (P < 0.05). The onset of oestrus was statistically different (P < 0.001) between the 10-d groups (G1 and G2) and the 14-d groups (G3 and G4). The litter size and oestrus, conception, lambing, multiple birth, and survival rates were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

Toryum administered to Pirlak ewes during progesterone-based oestrus synchronisation protocols during the non-breeding season may increase pregnancy rates. The relationship between Toryum and fertility parameters in ewes would be better understood by comprehensive studies.

Abstract

Introduction

Silage quality deteriorates with Clostridium spp. contamination, and if consumed, such silage jeopardises herd health and productivity. Minimising its occurrence reduces economic and animal welfare risks. The study investigated the influence of environmental and technological determinants on the Clostridium genus’ occurrence in silage.

Material and Methods

Analyses were conducted on 305 silage samples directly collected from farms located in all Polish provinces. Cultures and isolates were evaluated phenotypically and examined for occurrence of Clostridium spp., particularly C. perfringens and C. botulinum using PCR techniques. The results were statistically analysed using the ᵡ2 test for continuous and Student’s t-test for non-continuous values.

Results

The most influential effect on Clostridium spp. occurrence is exerted by factors potentially associated with primary production, like the type of fertilisation and the contamination level of the ensiled feed material. Clostridium spp. was detected in 232 (76%) samples, and C. perfringens strains, predominantly toxinotype A, in 79 (26%). C. botulinum occurrence was not detected.

Conclusions

Deterioration of silage by clostridia could be prevented by a properly conducted ensiling process with the addition of starter cultures, but the presence of spores mainly depends on primary production and the extent of contamination of the feed material.

Abstract

Introduction

To date, there have been no panoramic studies of the serum metabolome in feline mammary carcinoma. As the first such study, metabolomics techniques were used to analyse the serum of cats with these tumours. Three important metabolic pathways of screened differential metabolites closely related to feline mammary carcinomas were analysed to lay a theoretical basis for further study of the pathogenesis of these carcinomas.

Material and Methods

Blood in a 5–8 mL volume was sampled from twelve cats of the same breed and similar age (close to nine years on average). Six were feline mammary carcinoma patients and six were healthy. L glutamate, L alanine, succinate, adenine, hypoxanthine, and inosine were screened as were alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, the tricarboxylid acid (TCA) cycle, and purine metabolism. Data were acquired with LC-MS non-target metabolomics, multiple reaction monitoring target metabolomics, and multivariate statistical and bioinformatic analysis.

Results

Expression of five of the metabolites was upregulated and only inosine expression was downregulated. Up- and downregulation of metabolites related to glycometabolism, potentiation of the TCA cycle, greater content of lipid mobilisation metabolites, and abnormality of amino acid metabolism were closely related to the occurrence of the carcinomas.

Conclusion

These findings provide a new direction for further study of the mechanisms associated with cat mammary neoplasms.

Abstract

Introduction

Early detection of pregnancy is vital for appropriate reproductive management programmes to facilitate the rapid re-insemination of non-pregnant females and reduce the calving interval.

Material and Methods

A barium chloride test was compared with a commercial progesterone ELISA to detect pregnancy in non-descriptive cows and investigate if it could be applied as an alternative to ELISA in the field. Blood and urine samples were collected from 74 cows with recorded insemination dates. The progesterone ELISA and barium chloride assay were implemented to detect progesterone (P4) in blood and urine specimens, respectively. The cows' reproductive systems were examined after they were slaughtered to determine the uterus's status. Macroscopic examination of the uterus was used as a reference standard for both tests.

Results

The sensitivity rates of the P4 ELISA and barium chloride test to detect pregnant cows were 100.0% and 79.4%, and to detect the corpus luteum (CL) were 83.0% and 87.0%, respectively, their sensitivity increasing in the presence of the CL. The ELISA and barium chloride tests were 79.7% and 52.7% accurate in the diagnosis of pregnancy. The accuracy of the barium chloride test in CL detection increased to 81.0%, and that of the ELISA to 86.4%. There were no significant differences (P = 0.052) between the barium chloride assay and ELISA when they were utilised for the identification of the CL.

Conclusion

The barium chloride test can be an inexpensive and time-saving alternative to ELISA in pregnancy diagnosis when the insemination date is known.

Abstract

Introduction

Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory disease of the udder that causes important economic losses in the animal breeding and dairy product industries. Nowadays, the conventional livestock antibiotic treatments are slowly being replaced by alternative treatments. In this context, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of natural products in alternative treatment of bovine mastitis.

Material and Methods

Two natural formulations with previously suggested in vitro antimicrobial effect were tested in vivo on mastitic cows. Animals with a positive diagnosis for mastitis (n = 20) were divided into three treatment groups: two groups (n = 8) were administered formulations of propolis, alcoholic extracts of Brewers Gold and Perle hops, plum lichen, common mallow, marigold, absinthe wormwood, black poplar buds, lemon balm, and essential oils of oregano, lavender, and rosemary designated R4 and R7 (differing only in the latter being more concentrated) and one group (n = 4) a conventional antibiotic mixture. In vivo efficacy of treatments was evaluated by somatic cell and standard plate counts, the treatment being considered efficacious when both parameters were under the maximum limit.

Results

R7 was effective in the most cases, being therapeutically bactericidal in six out of eight cows, while R4 gave good results in three out of eight cows, and conventional antibiotics cured one out of four.

Conclusion

These results suggest the possible therapeutic potential of these natural products in bovine mastitis.