The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin C supplementation on blood oxidative stress biomarkers and antibody response to vaccination in calves.
Material and methods
Thirty-four clinically healthy 2 week old Japanese Black calves were randomly assigned to two groups. Seventeen calves formed the VC group which received 1,000 mg of vitamin C daily from 2 to 8 weeks of age, and the other 17 calves of the control group did not receive supplementation. All calves received an inactivated Histophilus somni vaccine at 4 and 8 weeks of age. Blood samples were taken at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age.
The concentration of the serum reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), and the oxidative stress index (OSI), which is calculated from the d-ROMs and biological antioxidant potential, were significantly lower at 8 weeks of age in the VC group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The antibody titres to H. somni in the VC group were significantly higher than those in the control group at 12 weeks of age after the second vaccination (P < 0.05).
Vitamin C supplementation to calves may reduce oxidative stress and enhance the antibody production after vaccination with H. somni.
Swine DNA viruses have developed unique mechanisms for evasion of the host immune system, infection and DNA replication, and finally, construction and release of new viral particles. This article reviews four classes of DNA viruses affecting swine: porcine circoviruses, African swine fever virus, porcine parvoviruses, and pseudorabies virus. Porcine circoviruses belonging to the Circoviridae family are small single-stranded DNA viruses causing different diseases in swine including poly-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, and porcine respiratory disease complex. African swine fever virus, the only member of the Asfivirus genus in the Asfarviridae family, is a large double-stranded DNA virus and for its propensity to cause high mortality, it is currently considered the most dangerous virus in the pig industry. Porcine parvoviruses are small single-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the Parvoviridae family that cause reproductive failure in pregnant gilts. Pseudorabies virus, or suid herpesvirus 1, is a large double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Herpesviridae family and Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. Recent findings including general as well as genetic classification, virus structure, clinical syndromes and the host immune system responses and vaccine protection are described for all four swine DNA virus classes.
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects both humans and animals, the occurrence of which increases markedly during and after heavy rainfall and flooding. The aim of this study was to determine the serological prevalence of leptospiral infection in livestock after a voluminous flood in 10 districts of the Malaysian state of Kelantan.
Material and Methods
In December 2014, Kelantan was hit by an extensive flood. A total of 1,728 serum samples were collected from livestock from the state, comprised of 1,024 from cattle, 366 from goats and 338 from sheep, and they were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT).
Altogether, 203 (11.75%; 203/1728; 95% CI: 10.20%–13.30%) of the tested sera were found to be positive serologically. Cattle had the highest prevalence of 14.16% (145/1024), while goats and sheep had 11.20% (41/366) and 5.03% (17/338) respectively. The most frequent serovars detected were Hardjo-bovis (3.70%; 64/1728), Hebdomadis (2.08%; 36/1728) and Pomona (1.04%; 18/1728). There was a statistically significant association (P < 0.05) between livestock that were exposed to the flood and seropositivity.
This study showed that flood is a risk factor that can play a role in the epidemiology of leptospiral infection in livestock.
This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge of chlamydiae. These intracellular microorganisms belonging to the Chlamydiaceae family are widely distributed throughout the world. Constant development of culture-independent approaches for characterisation of microbial genomes enables new discoveries in the field of Chlamydia. The number of new taxa is continuously increasing as well as the range of hosts. New species and genotypes are constantly being discovered, particularly new avian and reptilian agents, which are discussed in this article. Interestingly, wild animals are the main hosts for new Chlamydia species including different species of bird, turtle and snake. The availability of next-generation sequencing opens up a new prospect for research and leads to deeper knowledge of these interesting microorganisms about which much is still to discover.
An effective way of preventing undesirable boar taint in pork meat caused by the presence of androstenone, skatole and indole is surgical castration of piglets. This, however, arouses growing social opposition. An alternative method of inhibiting the development of unpleasant odour is immune castration. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of both methods of castration for the elimination of the compounds responsible and to assess the suitability of oral fluid for pre-slaughter predictive testing for boar taint.
Material and Methods
The research material was pooled oral fluid and fat samples taken from gilts and surgically and immunologically castrated piglets. The samples were tested with a liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry method developed in this research.
The compounds giving rise to boar taint were found only sporadically above the accepted limits; only one sample of oral fluid contained skatole at a concentration above 200 μg L−1 and one contained indole more concentrated than 100 μg L−1. Indole above the limit value was also detected in one fat sample. In none of the tested samples was androstenone found.
The results indicate the similar effectiveness of both methods of piglet castration on the reduction of compounds generating boar taint. The usefulness of testing oral fluid for the ante-mortem prediction of boar taint has not been fully confirmed and further investigation is needed.
Anaplasmosis is a vector-borne, infectious and non-contagious disease. The disease is caused by various pathogens of the genus Anaplasma. The different species cause different types of anaplasmosis depending on which cells that are infected in the mammalian host. Anaplasmosis has a wide host range, including humans, and it is distributed worldwide. The zoonotic potential of some species is of great importance in regards to public health concerns. This review presents information about anaplasmosis in animals and its prevalence in Europe, and other countries in the world.
This study was carried out to examine the comparative effects of coconut oil (CO), avocado oil (AO), and melon seed oil (MSO) on the growth performance, blood, biochemical, hematological parameters, and total microbial loads of Noiler birds. A total of 120 Noiler birds with an average weight of 50.3 ± 0.13 g were randomized into four treatment groups with 3 replications (10 per pen) for six weeks of fattening. Weekly body weight gain and daily feed intake of the birds were recorded for six weeks, after which average weight gain and feed conversion ratios were calculated. At the end of the feeding trials, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological parameter assessments, and the digesta from the colon and ileum were collected for their intestinal total microbial load analysis. The average weight gains and feed conversion ratios (FCR) of the birds supplemented with CO (1229.40 ± 15.00) and MSO (1232.66 ± 43.18) were observed to be significantly higher (P < 0.05), compared to the birds supplemented with AO (1110.73 ± 18.29) and the birds fed feed only (1034.79 ± 2.04) having the least weight gained. The biochemical parameters of the birds across the treatment were not significantly different (P > 0.05). White blood cells, packed cell volume, red blood cells and lymphocytes were significantly higher in the CO group compared to the birds supplemented with the avocado oil and melon seed oil. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the weight of the spleen, bursa and gall bladder among the birds. The Lactobacillus spp. in the colon of birds supplemented with coconut oil (6.43 ± 0.56) and melon oil (6.25 ± 0.65) were significantly higher. It can be concluded that coconut oil and melon seed oil have the potential to serve as growth promoters for chicken production.
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with treated rape-seed meal (tRSM) on the growth performance, blood mineral levels and fatty acid composition of back fat in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 12 crossbred pigs (Slovakian White × Landrace) with an initial live weight of 40.82 ± 2.69 kg were divided into two dietary treatments. The experimental period lasted 84 days; 38 days in the growing period and 46 days in the finishing period. The dietary treatments were as follows: control, a SBM-based diet (growing and finishing), and experimental, a treated RSM-based diet (growing and finishing). The rapeseed meal was treated with a product that neutralizes the negative physiological effects of anti-nutritive glucosinolates contained in rapeseed products for livestock feeding. Our analysis showed minor, no significant negative effects of tRSM on live weight, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio. Replacing SBM with tRSM had no significant effects on the proportion of the total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids of back fat samples, as well as concentrations of analysed serum minerals except zinc level. In conclusion, the inclusion of 25 % and 18 % of treated RSM in growing and finishing pig diets had no negative effects on the growth performance, blood mineral profile or fatty acid composition of back fat.
The current global climate warming trend leads to a shift in animal-habitats northwards. According to the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, summer 2018 was extremely hot and long throughout Slovakia. This was probably the fact that resulted in the detection of the presence of Megaselia spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) in one honeybee colony at the University apiary located in Rozhanovce (48° 46’ 27.24″ N; 21° 22’ 26.01″ E; eastern Slovakia). The first warning signal after opening the hive was the changed odour. During closer inspection, there were observed small parasitoid phorid larvae that emerged from the sealed bee brood; further examination revealed that the parasitized bee larvae and pupae contained emptied body cavities. Vice-versa, parasitisation was not detected in adult honey bees. Our knowledge of Diptera being responsible for parasitizing (even facultative) the honey bee (Apis mellifera) is still incomplete and needs to be investigated further in more details.