This study is a comparative analysis of the effects of money and capital markets on the Ghanaian economy covering the period from 1991 to 2017 using the dynamic Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) framework. Empirical results confirmed the existence of a unique and stable long-run relationship between the money market, capital market and economic growth. In respect of money market indicators, findings confirmed that monetary policy and treasury bills rate have had negative but significant impact on growth in the short- and long-run respectively. More so, total liquidity negatively and significantly influenced the Ghana-ian economy both in the short- and in the long run. Both market capitalisation and total value of stock traded, as proxies of capital market, had positive and significant effects on short-run growth, while both indicators as well as stock market turnover negatively and insignificantly a ected long-run growth. This means that capital market exerts a short-run impact on the country’s economy, while money market exerts both short- and long-run impacts. The lesson relearned is that the money market propels the Ghanaian economy better than the capital market.
This paper examines the causal relationship between nutrition intake, health status, education and economic growth within a six-variate VEC framework, forecast error variance decomposition and impulse response function techniques, covering the period from 1990 to 2013, using quarterly data in Nigeria. This paper includes control variables in order to eliminate variable omission bias, unlike most existing studies. The results suggest the presence of long-run, bicausal relationships between the candidate variables of the study. In addition, the short-run unidirectional causal relationships are found between main variables, including a causal relationship running from nutrition and fiscal policy to education, as well as a causal link running from education and economic growth to health status. These findings support the existing theories. The results based on the model and empirical data suggest that the government should allocate more resources to human development in order to enhance productivity and boost economic growth. Similarly, there is a need to design adequate mechanisms to ensure proper allocation of the limited resources and avoid their embezzlement by corrupt government officials.
In this study, we attempt to examine the factors that explain the spatial price differentials of selected perishable food crops across Nigerian markets. Based on monthly market prices of onions and tomatoes across different States, we examine the implications of climatic variations, cost of transportation and differences in economic sizes on the price spread of these items. The empirical findings from the dynamic heterogeneous panel regressions show that these factors have significant long-run impacts on the difference in food prices across markets. The results highlight climatic differences and transportation costs are important factors in regional price spreads for agricultural commodities and hence the need for specific policies to reduce the prices variability. Policies geared towards improving agriculture value-chain could o er pathways towards mitigating food loss and waste associated with changing climate and transfer costs, and thereby reduction in prices.
The multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) framework is used to analyze dimensions related to causation and indicators of tax haven status. Robust results were obtained that identify a country’s tax burden and area as causes of a country adopting policies usually observed in tax havens. The level of social security contributions as a proportion of public revenues and the ratio of indirect to direct taxes were found to be statistically significant indicators of tax havens. Data from 68 countries for more than twenty years were analyzed, enabling the results to contribute to a deepening of the current debate about tax havens and their socio-economic profiles.
Following the subprime crisis, most of the European central banks implemented several unconventional monetary instruments. As a result of the late quantitative easing, there was a shift from stimulating lending to the immediate stimulation of the securities market in the monetary policy of the European Central Bank (ECB) and of the smaller central banks, too. These securities purchase programs, first and second-market transactions, and asset purchases have led to an increase in the stock of securities held by the central banks, whose spill-over effects have not been fully explored yet. The aim of our research is to identify the spill-over effects of the central banks’ unconventional instruments and quantitative easing on currency volatility while considering the relative size of the issuing central bank and the situation of small open economies. By running an adapted version of gravity models, we analyzed a sample of six European central banks and the ECB. Based on our results, the high volatility levels of European currencies around the eurozone have come from their relative smallness and unconventional monetary policy, and considerations about safe havens have a reducing power on F X volatility.