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Study aim: It is important for therapists to incorporate new practical methods into therapy programs when they have demonstrable efficacy in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Investigating the acute effects of myofascial release techniques (MFR) and passive stretching (PS) on hind foot loading and the severity of spasticity in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) was the aim of the study.

Material and methods: Following the initial evaluation, 10 participants with MS (n = 20 feet) were given MFR for the plantar flexor muscle group. After the day following the first visit, participants were asked to come again and PS was applied to the plantar flexor muscle groups after the evaluation. The severity of spasticity was assessed with the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Dynamic loading parameters of the hind foot – medial and lateral maximum pressure (N/cm2), active contact areas (cm2), contact percentiles (%) – were evaluated with dynamic pedobarography. Participants of the study were evaluated four times: (1) at the initial evaluation, (2) after MFR application, (3) 24 hours after the initial evaluation (pre-PS), (4) after PS.

Results: There were no differences in MAS (p > 0.05) according to time-dependent analyses (p > 0.05). After MFR, the maximum pressure of the medial heel and active contact area were increased (p < 0.05) and there was a carryover effect on the maximum pressure of the right foot.

Conclusions: This study showed that MFR was an effective method for management of plantar flexor spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis in the short term and there was a carryover effect in favor of MFR. There was no additional effect of PS.


Study aim: Several sprint interval training applications with different slope angles in the literature mostly focused on sprint running time and kinematic and dynamic properties of running. There is a lack of comparative studies investigating aerobic and anaerobic power. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of sprint interval training on sloping surfaces on anaerobic and aerobic power.

Material and methods: A total of 34 male recreationally active men aged 20.26 ± 1.68 years and having a BMI of 21.77 ± 1.74 were assigned to one of the five groups as control (CON), uphill training (EXP 1), downhill training (EXP 2), uphill + downhill training (EXP 3) and horizontal running training (EXP 4) groups. Gradually increased sprint interval training was performed on horizontal and sloping surfaces with an angle of 4°. The training period continued for three days a week for eight weeks. The initial and the final aerobic power was measured by an oxygen analyser and anaerobic power was calculated from the results of the Margaria-Kalamen staircase test.

Results: Following the training programme, an increase in aerobic power was found in all training groups (EXP 1 = 20.79%, EXP 2 = 14.95%, EXP 3 = 26.85%, p < 0.01) and EXP 4 = 20.46%) (p < 0.05) in comparison with the CON group (0.12%), but there were no differences among the training groups. However, significant increases in anaerobic power were found in uphill training (4.91%) and uphill + downhill training (8.35%) groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed that all sprint interval studies on horizontal and sloping surfaces have a positive effect on aerobic power, and uphill and combined training are the most effective methods for the improvement of anaerobic power.


Study aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of postural disorders and their associated risk factors among high school girls in the city of Tabriz, Iran.

Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 female students aged 14 to 18 years. Students were examined using a scoliometer, a Debrunner kyphometer, and a flexible ruler, and were directly studied for genu varum/valgum. The information about possible risk factors such as age, BMI, school bag, study time, use of social networks, and physical activity was collected through demographic survey and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 22 through independent t-test, chi-square, and logistic regression.

Results: 181 participants (45%) had one or more abnormalities such as scoliosis (4%), kyphosis (5%), genu varum (5.7%), genu valgum (9.7%), hyperlordosis (11.2%), and asymmetrical shoulder (24.5%). The risk of hyperlordosis increased with increase in weight (OR: 1.08, 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.15; p = 0.014) and BMI (OR: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.13 to 1.67; p = 0.002). Moreover, the odds for genu valgum increased with increase in weight (OR: 1.07, 95%CI: 1.01 to 1.13; p = 0.045) and BMI (OR: 1.84, 95%CI: 1.29 to 2.62; p < 0.001); but it decreased with increase in age (OR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.39 to 0.98; p = 0.039) and not using a study table (OR: 0.31, 95%CI: 0.12 to 0.78; p = 0.013).

Conclusions: Forty-five percent of female students had one or more postural abnormalities. Asymmetrical shoulder was the most common disorder. Weight and BMI were associated with genu valgum and hyperlordosis.


Study aim: To determine the level and internal structure of profiles of coordination motor abilities in elite judokas and badminton players compared to a group of non-athletes.

Material and methods: The material for the study was the results collected from 12 competitors of the Polish national badminton team (age: 22.7 ± 4.5), 10 members of the national judo team who represented mean weight categories (age: 23.0 ± 3.3) and 25 non-athletes, who were male university students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport (age: 23.0 ± 0.8). The scope of the study included basic somatic features and selected coordination motor abilities measured by means of computer tests.

Results: Statistically significant differences between badminton players and judokas were obtained for reaction times (visual, auditory and selective) as well as spatial orientation. In all cases, a higher level was found for badminton players. Furthermore, analysis of differences between badminton players and non-athletes revealed statistically significant differences only for the selective reaction time. A substantial differentiation of the internal structure of the models of coordination motor abilities was obtained. This pattern was particularly noticeable in the group of judokas and badminton players, where the difference between characteristics was ca. 0.76 SD. Substantially smaller differences (0.21 SD) between particular variables included in the coordination profile were found for non-athlete university students.

Conclusion: The lower results of the elite judokas show the need for developing the coordination motor abilities during training. The largest reserves are to be found in raising the level of reaction times and spatial orientation.


Study aim: This study aimed to examine the effect of carrying backpacks on neck posture and ground reaction forces (GRFs) and to investigate the relationship between neck angles and GRFs during backpack carriage in schoolchildren.

Material and methods: The craniohorizontal angle (CHA), craniovertebral angle (CVA), sagittal shoulder posture (SSP) and GRFs were measured in right-handed schoolchildren (14 male and 12 female) with mean age 10.17 ± 1.15 years during loaded and unloading conditions. The Qualisys motion analysis system with a force plate was used to assess the neck angles and GRFs.

Results: During backpack carriage there was a significant increase in the CHA (p = 0.001), significant decrease in the CVA and SSP (p = 0.001, 0.016 respectively), no significant difference in the normalized (scaled to body weight) vertical GRFs (p > 0.05), and a significant increase in the anterior braking and posterior propulsive GRFs (p = 0.035, 0.002 respectively) compared to the unloading condition. While carrying a backpack there was a moderate negative correlation between the SSP and first vertical GRF (r = –0.464) and a strong negative correlation with the second vertical GRF (r = –0.571) and the posterior propulsive GRF (r = –0.587).

Conclusion: Carrying a backpack weighing 15% of the child’s body weight changes the head posture and increases the normalized value of the anterior-posterior shear force. During backpack carriage, decreasing the SSP is associated with increasing the load acceptance, thrusting and posterior propulsive forces. Increasing the shearing force may lead to development of postural abnormities. Consequently, the ideal backpack weight should be considered by parents and teachers.


Study aim: The body structure can play a determining role in the achievement of top judo performance, and it seems to influence the type of techniques applied. The aim of this study is to determine the somatotypes in male and female national level judokas across weight categories in order to observe possible differences among athletes.

Material and methods: A total of 61 male judokas (23.2 ± 2.7 years old) and 37 female judokas (22.3 ± 3.3 years old) participated in this study. Anthropometric variables were used to calculate somatotypes. Somatotypes were determined according to the Heath-Carter method. Analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc test were used to determine differences between weight categories and obtained effect sizes (η2) were presented as well.

Results: Somatotype differences among weight categories in male and female judokas were observed. Generally, all categories could be classified in three somatotypes in male and female athletes.

Conclusions: The lightest categories were recognized as mesomorphic ectomorphs in females with an exception in the –48 kg category, and ectomorphic mesomorphs in male athletes. The middle ones had the endomorphic mesomorph somatotype and the heaviest athletes presented somewhat more extreme cases of endomorphic mesomorphs, both in male and female judokas. According to the results obtained, judokas have a specific body composition in different weight categories. Therefore, coaches could create a specific training programme for athletes who belong to different somatotypes.


Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether our own twelve-week Sensorimotor Exercise Programme (SEP) affected FMS results in canoe slalom athletes. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool for detecting asymmetries and movement range limitations in order to prevent sport injuries. The screen evaluates mobility and stability in seven fundamental movement patterns.

Material and methods: The study population consisted of 16 athletes from the Canoe Slalom National Team of Poland who competed in three sports categories: kayak single, canoe single, canoe double. The athletes, 13 men and 3 women, undertook the FMS screen twice before the starting season. Between the first and the second screen the athletes undertook a twelve-week long sensorimotor training programme.

Results: The result analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FMS results. The mean FMS screen result after twelve weeks of training increased from 16.6 points to 19.6 points.

Conclusions: An adequately designed SEP can lead to an improvement in athlete movement patterns. The FMS screen allows for assessment of changes in athlete movement patterns after twelve weeks of SEP training.


Study aim: The purpose of this study was to examine smartphone-using university students’ musculoskeletal system pain complaints, duration of smartphone and computer usage, participation in moderate-vigorous physical activities (MVPA), and prolonged sitting time.

Material and methods: This study was conducted on Hitit University students (n = 387; 206 female, 181 male) in the province of Çorum. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), the Physical Activity Assessment Ques­tionnaire (PAAQ) (sports/exercise activities section), and a personal information form prepared by the researchers were used as data collection tools. Descriptive statistics and the t-test were used to determine differences between groups. The Pearson chi-square test was used to examine the relationship between categorical variables.

Results: It was observed that half of the participants with musculoskeletal system pain complaints (54.5%) feel the pain in all four areas (neck, shoulder, upper and lower back). There was no statistically significant relationship between physical activity intensity and pain complaint (p > 0.05). The students with musculoskeletal pain complaints spend more time on the smartphone and computer than students who do not have pain complaints (p < 0.05). During electronic device usage, the students who are in the low-intensity physical activity category spend more time sitting down than students in the moderate/vigorous intensity physical activity category (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: In consequence, information can be provided about the importance of reducing sitting time during smartphone use and increasing the duration of moderate/vigorous-intensity physical activity (PA) so awareness can be raised on the issue among university students.


Study aim: To verify the relationship between different durations of regular practice of physical activity in aspects related to the anthropometric profile and hepatic function of patients infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Material and methods: 125 patients (aged 55.2 ± 10.4 years) participated in the study. Clinical data were obtained through medical records available at the Pernambuco Liver Institute. Physical activity levels were obtained through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form to classify the patients according to the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Results: Significant differences were found in GGT 141 (28-378 U/L) and HDL 39 (27-56 mg/dL) respectively in insuffi­ciently active and physically active groups, AST 71 (26-268 U/L), ALT 83 (36-452 U/L), GGT 78 (3-532 U/L), alkaline phos­phatase 74 (47-302 mg/dL) and total bilirubin 0.7 (0.1-2.8 mg/dL) in insufficiently active and very physically active groups. Anthropometric data showed significant differences in chest (p < 0.01), abdomen (p < 0.02) and waist measurement (p < 0.01) between insufficiently active and very physically active groups.

Conclusion: Physical activity, when practiced regularly for more than 300 minutes per week, can improve the clinical and an­thropometric profile in patients infected with HCV.


Self-myofascial release (SMR) is a well-known and popular therapy. Its growing popularity is based on high effectiveness and availability. However, there is a lack of agreement about which parameters should be used to optimize the effects of the therapy. The purpose of this review is to critically select and assess current literature and ascertain the values of the follow­ing parameters: (1) therapy duration, (2) volume of applied pressure, (3) speed and (4) frequency of roll, (5) type of roller, (6) the number of treatment applications during one session, (7) the duration of intervals between applications that yield the best results in terms of soft tissue.

The authors launched their research in May 2018. The search strategy included the electronic databases EBSCOhost and PubMed. The following inclusion criteria were assessed:

- English language, high quality manuscripts (evaluation in PEDro scale)

- at least one of the groups using the foam roller, tennis ball or the stick to fascial release

- basic parameters of therapy described.A total 55 articles met the inclusion criteria. Patients can usually withstand a maximum tolerable pressure for 30-120 seconds, repeated 1-3 times, separated by 30 seconds of rest. The intensity of a single rolling movement should be moderate, and the movement should last about 3 seconds. Keeping the roller on particularly sensitive areas is recommended to release tension and enhance blood perfusion.Currently, there is no consensus on an optimal FR programme. However, there is a tendency to use SMR tools with a physiol­ogy-based method to enhance therapeutic efficiency.