1 - 10 of 300 items :

  • Education, other x
  • Clinical Medicine x
Clear All


Aim: To present the inappropriate types of authorship and practice, and the most recent developments related to basic principles and criteria to a fair system for allocating authorship in scientific publications.

Methods: An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the internet and published literature and personal experience and observations of the author.

Results: Working in multidisciplinary teams is a common feature of modern research processes. The most sensitive question is how to decide on who to acknowledge as author of a multi-authored publication. The pertinence of this question is growing with the increasing importance of individual scientists’ publication records for professional status and career. However, discussions about authorship allocation might lead to serious conflicts and disputes among coworkers which could even endanger cooperation and successful completion of a research project. It seems that discussion and education about ethical standards and practical guidelines for fairly allocating authorship are insufficient and the question of ethical practices related to authorship in multi-authored publications remains generally unresolved.

Conclusion: It is necessary to work for raising awareness about the importance and need for education about principles of scientific communication and fair allocation of authorship, ethics of research and publication of results. The use of various forms of education in the scientific community, especially young researchers and students, in order to create an ethical environment, is one of the most effective ways to prevent the emergence of scientific and publication dishonesty and fraud, including pathology of authorship.


Borderline personality disorder is a clinically important psychiatric diagnosis that is distinct from major depressive, bipolar and posttraumatic stress disorders, despite the overlapping symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly clinical and must follow the DMS 5 (or ICD 10) characteristics.

The most common age at first presentation is in late adolescence, but the disorder frequently can be stay as misdiagnosed.

Our study is concerned to QEEG characteristics, as well as coherence in borderline patients compared with healthy group, matched by number, gender and age and selected randomly.

Our obtained results showed that electrophysiological characteristics for borderlines are fairly without statistical differences, except in low bands (delta and theta), which showed significantly lower frequencies and coherence compared to a healthy group.

Future research in this filed with more patients is highly recommended.


We reported a case of a twenty-one-year-old man with an atrial flutter as the first manifestation of progressive cardiac conduction disease. The patient was admitted to the cardiology department due to complaints of shortness of breath and a decrease in exercise tolerance, which had happened after physical exercises (running). During ambulatory ECG monitoring persistent AFL was observed with atrial rate 262-297 bpm and ventricular rate 26-136 bpm (average 56 bpm). AV conduction was very variable – 4:1-14:1. The results of ambulatory ECG monitoring during the whole period of recording indicated signs of atrioventricular conduction disturbances. After cardioversion sinus rhythm was restored additional rhythm and conduction disorders were revealed. Ambulatory ECG monitoring was performed two weeks after the initial one, and throughout this recording were registered sinus rhythm on the background of first-degree AV block; transient Mobitz I AV block; and type 2 second-degree sinoatrial block. Trans-esophageal electrophysiology study was performed. During pharmacological denervation of the heart, signs of slowing of the atrioventricular conduction and sinus node recovery time persisted. These changes along with right bundle branch block were regarded as a progressive cardiac conduction disease with an apparently hereditary cause.


The traditional chronic kidney disease (CKD) biomarkers (eGFR based on serum creatinine, sex and age and albuminuria) cannot predict a patient’s individual risk for developing progressive CKD. For this reason, it is necessary to identify novel CKD biomarkers that will be able to predict which patients are prone to develop progressive disease and discriminate between disease processes in different parts of the nephron (glomeruli or tubules).

A good biomarker should change before or simultaneously with lesion development and its changes should correlate strongly with lesion development. Also, there should be a close relationship between severity of injury and amount of detectable biomarker and its levels should decrease with diminishing injury.

Among the large number of molecules under investigation, we have reviewed the most promising ones: NGAL and KIM-1, MCP-1, MMP-9, clusterin, MMP-9, TIMP-1, Procollagen I alpha 1 and suPAR. All these, have been studied as biomarkers for prediction of CKD progression in cohorts of patients with chronic kidney disease of different stages and various aetiologies (proteinuric and non-proteinuric, glomerulonephritides, diabetic, hypertensive and polycystic kidney disease). There is evidence that these molecules could be useful as biomarkers for progressive chronic kidney disease, however, the available data are not enough to draw final conclusions. Further studies with large cohorts and long follow-up are required to identify appropriate biomarkers, that will be able to accurately and reliably define the risk for progressive chronic kidney disease.


Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infective pathogen in kidney transplant recipients. Valganciclovir (VAL) is commonly used for prophylaxis, especially in high-risk recipients. Generic VAL formulations have become available, but the data about their safety and efficacy are lacking.

Methods: Consecutive de novo kidney transplant patients were randomized to generic VAL Valganciklovir Teva® (VT group)(24 patients) or Alvanocyte® (A group), Alvogen (19 patients) or to Valcyte® (V group), Roche (23 patients) in a 18-month open-label study. Universal prophylaxis was used for 6 months after the transplantation. CMV DNA levels were measured at 1,3,6,9,12 and 18 months after the transplantation. All positive measurements of CMV DNA were recorded.

Results: Groups did not differ regarding the clinical characteristics or the risk for developing CMV infection in the post-transplant period. CMV replications were most common at 9 months after the transplantation with rates of 9% for the V, 13% for the VT and 26% for the A group (p=0.26). At 12 months, positive CMV DNA was recorded in 22%, 8% and 11 % of patients taking V, VT and A, respectively (p=0.37). Rates of biopsy-proven acute rejection, adverse events, and serious adverse events were similar for all formulations. Lymphocele occurred most commonly in the V group (35%) compared to 17% in VT and 17% in the A group (p=0.23). One patient from each of the A and VT groups developed CMV disease. Additionally, they were the only two patients with CMV DNA copies above 656 IU/ml. Glomerular filtration rates were similar in all groups at all time points, while proteinuria was significantly higher at 12 months in patients who received V 0.32 g/day (0.18 – 0.42), compared to patients on VT 0.2 (0.1 – 0.2), or A 0.2 (0.2 – 0.3), p=0.04.

Conclusion: Valgancyclovir efficacy and safety in this limited data set is similar with early administration of V, VT and A after kidney transplantation. Additional studies aimed at elucidating the effectiveness of this treatment regimen in patients who are at high risk for developing CMV infection are necessary to draw further conclusions.


In the period from 26th until 29th of September 2019, the 15th BANTAO Congress (Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs) in conjunction with the 6th Congress of the Macedonian Society of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs (MSNDTAO) was held in Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia, hosted by the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA). MSNDTAO was created in 1992 and the First Congress of the MSNDTAO was held on 9th October 1993 in Ohrid when, also, the Balkan Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs (BANTAO) was established, as the only professional association of this kind in the Balkans and Southern Europe. Since then, MSNDTAO has been very active in education and collaboration with BANTAO, the European Renal Association (ERA-EDTA) and the International Society of Nephrology (ISN). The 15th BANTAO and the 6th MSNDTAO Congress were highly professional events in honor of the 80th anniversary of Academician Momir Polenakovic from the Republic of North Macedonia, one of the founders of BANTAO and MSNDTAO, who was unselfishly dedicated to the education and guidance for many generations of young doctors in this region. This year’s Congress was endorsed by the ERA-EDTA, and supported by the ISN. On the first day of the Congress, a European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) session was held, in which the Chair of the ERBP Working Group, Prof. Dr. Jonathan Fox gave a comprehensive insight of the purpose and aims of ERBP, the methods used for their achievement, and an overview of the recently produced and guidelines in development. The second day was organized in four sessions: Clinical nephrology and renal registries; CKD Diagnosis, comorbidities and treatment; Kidney transplantation and Acute and chronic renal failure management. On the third congress day, the ISN CME Course with ERA-EDTA endorsement was held. The course was entitled “Possibility of diagnosis and treatment of the CKD progression and complications/Possibility of diagnosis and treatment of the CKD progression – current perspective” and was chaired by Prof. Dr. Caskey Fergus and Prof. Dr. Serhan Tuglular. On the last Congress day, before the official closure and the best wishes from the President of the Congress, Prof. Dr. Goce Spasovski, a session about CKD and the renal replacement therapy complications was held. This event was of an exceptional importance for the region, considering the charred international achievements and the most up-to-date methods used in the Nephrology field, bringing out continuous quality improvement in the treatment of patients with renal diseases.


Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a progressive, life-threatening, genetic disease which mainly damages the lungs and the digestive system. It’s a complex medical condition, with several individual forms and variation in the symptoms severity. Few factors such as age of establishing the diagnosis, the number and the type of infections and their management, best treatment options, comorbid conditions etc. can influence the patient’s overall health, disease progression and quality of life. Many CF patients will reach adulthood, so coping with the chronic disease is very important for the overall health and everyday living.

Aim of the study: To screen the quality of life in CF patients in the Republic of Macedonia, from the parent perspective.

Subjects and methods: In the study we have included 55 parents of CF patients. We have created a questionnaire, specially designed for this survey, with questions related to their everyday coping with CF and quality of life.

Results: The majority of the parents refer to the overall typical social and emotional life of their children, addressing some difficulties concerning the financial aspect of the disease and still significantly having fear from the stigma in the society.

Conclusion: CF patients and their families in the Republic of Macedonia must overcome many obstacles on daily basis. Despite that, they can still have full and meaningful lives.


Introduction: Cephalea from orofacial origin is a diffuse, mild to moderate pain that appears as a bandage around the head. There are many different etiological causes of dental origin that contribute to the appearance of cephalea.

Purpose: The purpose of our research is dental treatment of patients with traumatic occlusion, bruxism and loss of occlusal support, which have a pathological condition - cephalea from orofacial origin.

Material and methods:For the purposes of this paper, 15 patients with cephalea from orofacial origin were analysed, diagnosed and treated. The control group consisted of 15 patients without etiological factors. A butterfly deprogrammer and a stabilization splint were made depending on the indication.

Results and discussion: According to our patient study results, it appears to be a link between inadequately made prosthetic devices, bruxism and loss of occlusal support with cephalea. The therapy should help the patient urgently and continue to relieve the cephalea symptoms from orofacial origin. The results show an improvement in 86.7% of the examinees.

Conclusion: The butterfly deprogrammer and stabilization splint are new methods that can contribute along with other therapeutic modalities in improving the quality of life in a patient with cephalea from orofacial origin.



Introduction: Asymptomatic hypoglycaemia has been reported in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients on haemodialysis. Uremic symptoms as inadequate appetite, nausea and vomiting worsen the risk of hypoglycaemia at dialysis initiation. As a standard therapeutic approach for decreasing this risk and dis-equilibrium syndrome at our dialysis unit, a continuous venous 5% glucose solution is applied during the glucose-free dialysate (GFD) dialysis. In this interventional study we sought to assess the glycaemic control during standard initiating dialysis protocol versus novel approach with glucose-rich dialysis fluid (GRD).

Material and methods: Twenty-one dialysis patients with chronic renal failure were dialyzed alternatively using GRD (5.6 mmol/l) and GFD fluid. They were not taking any hypoglycaemic medication prior and food during dialysis session. Blood was sampled at regular intervals during dialysis. The dialysis prescription consisted of ultrafiltration (UF) of up to 1 L, membrane surface (MS) up to 1.4 square meters and duration time of 2-2.5 hours. Intra-patient glycaemic variability was defined by Coefficient of variation (CV). In paired analysis t-test was used to determine the glucose control differences in both therapeutic approaches in each patient. For the whole group t-test was used to assess the glucose variability as CV.

Results: The mean age of study participants was 62.95±11.73 years; 7 (33%) had diabetes. The two dialysis approaches did not differ in respect of initial blood pressure, UF and MS. Only two episodes of hypoglycaemia occurred in both types of dialysis. The mean glucose level was higher during GRD (8.15±1.89 vs. 6.29±1.33, p=0.001), respectively. The glucose CV was lower in GRD dialysis when pared t-test was applied, without significant difference (16.97± 8.86 vs. 21.05±11.99, p=0.151). When only diabetic patients were analysed, there was no significant glucose CV difference as well (p=0.151). For the whole cohort glucose variability was significantly higher in glucose-free dialysate dialysis (p=0.0001).

Conclusion: The GRD approach for initiating dialysis sessions is non-inferior to standard GFD care. Dialysate rich in glucose obtains better glucose control during dialysis compared to glucose-free dialysate.