The paper presents research on the near real-time atmospheric sounding system. The main objective of the research was the development and testing of the weather sounding system based on a weather balloon. The system contains a redundant system of radiosondes, a lifting platform containing weather balloon and a holding system as well as ground station. Several tests of the system were performed in August and September 2019. Altitude, reliability, resistance to weather conditions and data convergence were tested. During tests, new procedures for such missions were developed. The final test was performed for the ILR-33 Amber Rocket as a part of pre-launch procedures. The test was successful and allowed to use acquired atmospheric data for further processing. Several post-tests conclusions were drawn. The altitude of sounding by a weather balloon depends mostly on weather conditions, the amount of gas pumped and the weight of a payload. The launching place and experience of the crew play an important role in the final success of the mission, as well.
The presented paper considers a comparison of the traditional methods for the state maximal probability determination to the proposed hybrid probabilistic and variational concept. It is shown the advantages of the described multi-optional hybrid-effectiveness functions uncertainty measure conditional optimization doctrine in the sense of avoiding the traditional ways analytical complicatedness concerning the maximal probability of the possible state determination. The results of the numerical example are presented.
The article is in line with the contemporary interests of companies from the aviation industry. It describes thermoplastic material and inspection techniques used in leading aviation companies. The subject matter of non-destructive testing currently used in aircraft inspections of composite structures is approximated and each of the methods used is briefly described. The characteristics of carbon preimpregnates in thermoplastic matrix are also presented, as well as types of thermoplastic materials and examples of their application in surface ship construction. The advantages, disadvantages and limitations for these materials are listed. The focus was put on the explanation of the ultrasonic method, which is the most commonly used method during the inspection of composite structures at the production and exploitation stage. Describing the ultrasonic method, the focus was put on echo pulse technique and the use of modern Phased Array heads. Incompatibilities most frequently occurring and detected in composite materials with thermosetting and thermoplastic matrix were listed and described. A thermoplastic flat composite panel made of carbon pre-impregnate in a high-temperature matrix (over 300°C), which was the subject of the study, was described. The results of non-destructive testing (ultrasonic method) of thermoplastic panel were presented and conclusions were drawn.
Noise generated by helicopters is one of the main problems associated with the operation of rotorcrafts. Requirements for reduction of helicopter noise were reflected in the regulations introducing lower limits of acceptable rotorcraft noise. A significant source of noise generated by helicopters are the main rotor and tail rotor blades. Radical noise reduction can be obtained by slowing down the blade tips speed of main and tail rotors. Reducing the rotational speed of the blades may decrease rotor thrust and diminish helicopter performance. The problem can be solved by attaching more blades to main rotor. The paper presents results of calculation regarding improvement of the helicopter performance which can be achieved for reduced rotor speed but with increased number of rotor blades. The calculations were performed for data of hypothetical light helicopter. Results of simulation include rotor loads and blade deformations in chosen flight conditions. Equations of motion of flexible rotor blades were solved using the Galerkin method which takes into account selected eigen modes of the blades. The simulation analyzes can help to determine the performance and loads of a quiet helicopter with reduced rotor speed within the operational envelope of helicopter flight states.
One of important problems in aerospace engineering is to determine the amount of fluid in the tank in a microgravity environment. There are several methods for doing it, however, there are no proven methods to quickly gauge the amount of propellant in a tank in low gravity conditions. New and more accurate methods of such a measurement are being continually searched for. One of interesting solutions is using Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) for this purpose. The article presents both numerical analysis and experimental test results using a spherical tank. The main purpose of the simulation was to determine the effect of the number of electrodes and noise signal level on the quality of reconstruction images. In numerical simulations, different models of dielectric permittivity distribution have been reconstructed. On the basis of numerical simulations, a 24-electrode sensor was designed and made. In experimental tests, different distribution of medium inside the spherical tank was investigated. The results show that the method can directly measure the mass of fuel in the tank, as well as it allows for a visualization of fuel distribution, independent of the tank position in space, and the liquid-propellant system will be used.