Increasingly high demands on environmental protection are intensifying the development of sustainable construction. Ventilated facades can provide an energy-efficient alternative to standard facades, that is, external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS). The article compares standard facades, which was a reference, to ventilated facades in two variants: closed joints and open joints. The comparison was made by means of numerical simulations of computational fluid dynamic (CFD), under conditions of high outside temperature and high sunshine. The results showed great benefits of using ventilated facades in such external climate conditions. It was also observed that the selection of the variant of ventilated facade in the system of close or open joints has minimal influence on thermal efficiency of the whole partition.
This article presents the results of experimental work carried out both in situ (coring; pressuremeter test) and in the laboratory (drying-wetting and oedometric tests) to describe the volumetric behavior on drying-wetting path of a swelling clayey soil of eastern Algeria. In order to perform drying-wetting tests the osmotic technique and saturated salts solutions were used. These suction-imposed methods have gained widespread acceptance as reliable methods for imposing suction on soil specimens. They allowed to sweep a wide range of suctions between 0 and 500 MPa. The ability to impose suction on soil specimens allows for drying and wetting stress paths to be applied to evaluate resulting changes in state parameters (void ratio, degree of saturation and water content). These paths were carried out on specimens with different initial states. Slurries of soil were used to characterize the reference behavior, while the undisturbed soil samples allow to describe the behavior of material under in situ conditions. In the last part of this article and to specify the behavior observed in the saturated domain, a comparison between the resulting deformations of the drying-wetting test and those resulting from the oedometric test was made.
Wellbore collapse is an instability-event that occurs at low mud density and leads to unfavorable economic project, reaching billions of US dollars. Thus, it is important to accurately determine its value, especially in deepwater horizontal wellbores. The main reasons for nontrivial problems with such wellbores are evident: the shale encountered are anisotropic in nature and possess planes of weakness; they react with water-based mud, generate osmotic stresses, swell, and fall unto the wellbore bottom, thereby increasing the non-productive time. To this end, salts are added to reduce the collapse tendency, but it is not currently known what amount of salt addition maintains stability, and does not lead to wellbore fracture; in deepwater, the current trend in global warming means there is a future concern to the industry. As the climate temperature increases, more ice melts from the polar region, the seawater expands and the sea level rises. How to incorporate the corresponding effect on collapse gradient is scarcely known. This study captures the major concerns stated above into wellbore stability analysis. Following the classical approach for geomechanical analysis, Mogi-Coulomb criterion was combined with a constitutive stress equation comprising contributions from mechanical and osmotic potentials of mud and shale. A sophisticated industry model was used to consider the deepwater effect. The results show significant reduction in collapse gradient as the water depth increases, also, larger difference between the mud and shale chemical activities represents higher complexities in the wellbore. In addition, the reduction in the chemical activities of mud limited to 37.5% of the initial value can be practically safe.
The paper presents the results of laboratory tests of plastic limit wP and liquid limit wL of Eemian gyttja characterized by different organic matter content Iom and calcium carbonate content CaCO3. Comparison of the liquid limit wL determined with the use of the Casagrande apparatus wLC and a cone penetrometer with cones having apex angles of 60° wL60 and 30° wL30 is shown. Based on statistical analysis of the test results, single- and two-factor empirical relationships for evaluating the plastic limit wP and liquid limit wL of Eemian gyttja depending on the organic matter content Iom and/or calcium carbonate content CaCO3 are presented in this study.
This article presents the methodology and results of single shear tests of bolt rods under dynamic impact loading generated by means of a drop hammer. Comparative analysis was also performed for bolt rod load capacity, stress and shear work under static and dynamic (impact) loading. The developed method of single shear testing of bolt rods under impact loading makes it possible to obtain repeatable test results concerning maximum bolt rod shearing force, shear stress and shear work values.
Comparative shear tests of four types of bolt rods under static and impact loading showed that the APB-type bolt rods made of AP770 steel, which was characterised by having the highest strength, exhibited the greatest shear work. AM22-type bolt rods exhibited a very similar work value. Though the AM22-type bolt rods made of A500sh steel demonstrated lower strength than the APB-type bolts, as well as a smaller diameter and cross section, they dissipated the impact energy better thanks to their higher plasticity. This could indicate the direction of optimisation for bolt rods in order to increase their impact strength.
Mathematical relationships were also formulated for selected tests, describing the real single shear courses F d =f(t) of bolts under impact loading. The obtained relationships could be applied in the load assessment process of bolt rods intended for use under roof caving, tremor and rock burst conditions.
This article presents a modified incremental model describing pre-failure deformations of granular soils under classical triaxial conditions. The original shape of equations has been proposed by Sawicki and Świdziński [40, 41]. A new form of equations that are consistent with the proposed definitions of deviatoric loading and unloading is suggested. Triaxial tests necessary for calibrating the proposed model have been performed. The modified model is used to simulate the deformations and stability of sand for every pre-failure loading path and makes it possible to describe the behaviour of granular soil under both drained and undrained conditions.
A comparison of experimental and numerical results is presented. All investigations were performed in a classical tri-axial apparatus.
This paper presents an efficient method and its usage for the three-dimensional random bearing capacity evaluation for square and rectangular footings. One of the objectives of the study is to deliver graphs that can be used to easily estimate the approximated values of coefficients of variations of undrained bearing capacity. The numerical calculations were based on the proposed method that connects three-dimensional failure mechanism, simulated annealing optimization scheme and spatial averaging. The random field is used for describing the spatial variability of undrained shear strength. The proposed approach is in accordance with a constant covariance matrix concept, that results in a highly efficient tool for estimating the probabilistic characteristics of bearing capacity. As a result, numerous three-dimensional simulations were performed to create the graphs. The considered covariance matrix is a result of Vanmarcke’s spatial averaging discretization of a random field in the dissipation regions to the single random variables. The matrix describes mutual correlation between each dissipation region (or between those random variables). However, in the presented approach, the matrix was obtained for the expected value of undrained shear strength and keep constant during Monte Carlo simulations. The graphs were established in dimensionless coordinates that vary in the observable in practice ranges of parameters (i.e., values of fluctuation scales, foundation sizes and shapes). Examples of usage were given in the study to illustrate the application possibility of the graphs. Moreover, the comparison with the approach that uses individually determined covariance matrix is shown.
The present study shows the results of a 2D local seismic response (LSR) analysis, simulated for a geomechanical model consisting of a layered carbonate rock mass with hypogean karst caves and a structural–lithostratigraphic complex setting, in an area within the Municipality of Turi (Apulia, Italy). In this case study a Distinct Element Code (DEM) code (UDEC) was used for the LSR simulations conducted on a model both in the absence and in the presence of two overlapping karst caves. The preliminary stress–strain model analysis show some tensile yielding points clustered on the roof of the upper karst cave, already in static conditions, and the phenomenon becomes even more noticeable in dynamic conditions. This is perfectly in agreement with the real occurrence of a sinkhole that brought to the light the underlying karst cave, in the case study area, in the recent past.
The amplification/deamplification factor (FA) was calculated as the ratio of the top value to the bottom value in the model, both of the max X-acceleration and of the spectral Fourier amplitude in three different ranges of frequencies, in order to estimate the effects of LSR on the X-component of the seismic input. According to the previous studies, the results obtained show a generalised deamplification of the seismic ground motion at the top of the model, both without and with underground karst caves, caused by the presence of the upper karst cave and by the seismic energy absorption because of layers’ discontinuity.
In a piled-raft foundation, the interaction between structural elements and soil continuum can be simulated very precisely by numerical modeling. In the present study, 3D finite element model has been used to examine the settlement, load-sharing, bending moment, and shear force behavior of piled-raft foundation on different soil profiles for different load configurations and pile-raft configurations (PRCs). The model incorporates the pile-to-soil and raft-to-soil interactions by means of interface elements. The effect of parameters such as pile spacing and raft thickness are also studied. For any soil profile, larger pile spacing is observed to be more efficient in reducing the average settlement and enhancing the load-sharing coefficient. The smaller pile spacing is observed to be efficient in reducing the differential settlement. For any soil profile, the behavior of piled-raft foundation is significantly affected by the PRCs and load configurations. Furthermore, the raft thickness has significant effect on settlement, bending moment, and shears force. Thus, the results of the present study can be used as guidelines for analyzing and designing large piled-raft foundation.
The results of studies of the crushing process in a double toggle jaw crusher are presented. This process was carried out on six sets of crushing plates. The first three of them are used in industrial crushers – plates with a flat working surface and a triangular profile (in this work, under consideration were profiles with teeth angle γ = 90°). The fourth and fifth type refer to plates with a variable pitch t and teeth height with a triangular shape of the teeth. In the sixth solution, plates with variable pitch and width of the wedged teeth are proposed.
The results of the basic process parameters are shown, that is, average degree of fineness n, technical performance Wt, crushing energy L and crushing force F, sieve analysis of crushing product. The obtained results are the basis for the assessment of the suitability of various types of plates, especially plates with a new profile, which have an altered shape in comparison with the plates used in crushers so far.
The crushing tests were carried out with the same dimension of outlet slot er = 24 mm, close to the pitch size for plates with triangular profile. Tests were performed on the “Mucharz” sandstone. Samples from a series of blocks of different size and geometric shape were prepared. This work also presents feed mass influence on crushing process efficiency.
The plates with variable pitch and width of teeth are beneficial because of lower crushing force and energy.