This paper reports an analytical study of delamination fracture in the Crack-Lap Shear (CLS) multilayered beam configuration with taking into account the material non-linearity. A delamination crack was located arbitrary along the beam height. It was assumed that the CLS mechanical response can be described by using a power-law stress-strain relation. It should be mentioned that each layer may have different material constants in the stress-strain relation. Besides, the thickness of each layer may be different. The classical beam theory was applied in the present study. The non-linear fracture behaviour was analyzed by the J-integral. Analytical solutions of the J-integral were obtained for homogeneous as well as for multilayered CLS beams. In order to verify the solutions obtained, analyses of the strain energy release rate were developed with considering material non-linearity. Material properties and crack location effects on the non-linear fracture behaviour were investigated. The analysis revealed that the J-integral value increases when the material non-linearity is taken into account. It was found also that the J-integral value decreases with increasing the lower crack arm thickness. The approach developed here is very convenient for parametric fracture analyses. The solutions derived can be used for optimization of the CLS multilayered beams with respect to their fracture performance.
This paper presented a three dimensional analysis for the buckling behavior of an imperfect orthotropic thick cylindrical shells under pure axial or external pressure loading. Critical loads are computed for different imperfection parameter. Both ends of the shell have simply supported conditions. Governing differential equations are driven based on the second Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensor and are reduced to a homogenous linear system of equations using differential quadrature method. Buckling loads reduction factor is computed for different imperfection parameters and geometrical properties of orthotropic shells. The sensitivity is established through tables of buckling load reduction factors versus imperfection amplitude. It is shown that imperfections have higher effects on the buckling load of thin shells than thick ones. Results show that the presented method is very accurate and can capture the various geometrical imperfections observed during the manufacturing process or transportation.
This paper presents the mathematical model to solve the topological optimization problem. Effect of higher order element on the optimum topology of the isotropic structure has been studied by using 8-node elements which help in decreasing the numerical instability due to checkerboarding problem in the final topologies obtained. The algorithms are investigated on a number of two-dimensional benchmark problems. MATLAB code has been developed for different numerical two dimensional linear isotropic structure and SIMP approach is applied. Models are discretized using linear quadratic 4-node and 8-node elements and optimal criteria method is used in the numerical scheme. Checkerboarding instability in the final topology is greatly reduces when incorporated 8-node element instead of 4-node element which can be confirmed through comparing the final topologies of the structure.
The aim of this research paper is to reduce the drag of SUV by using a vortex generator and to calculate the pressure and turbulence profile across the vehicle. The Ahmed Reference Model is taken as a benchmark test. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with and without vortex generator is performed at different velocities across the SUV similar to TATA Sumo. The performance of Vortex generator is analyzed at different velocities to obtain the particular velocity at which it will have the minimum value of drag. The end results are henceforth analyzed and a comparative study has been performed with the experimental data given by Gopal and Senthikumar on SUV. And finally it is found that the 10 % of drag reduction is achieved using vortex generator.
In this paper, radial vibrations of an infinitely long fluid-filled transversely isotropic thick-walled hollow composite poroelastic cylinder are investigated in the framework of poroelasticity. The cylinder consists of two concentric cylindrical layers namely, core (inner one) and coating (outer one), each of which retains its own distinctive properties. A comparative study has been made between the thick-walled hollow composite poroelastic cylinder and that of fluid-filled one. Frequency is computed against the ratio between the thickness to inner radius of the composite cylinder at various anisotropic ratios. Another comparative study is made between the results of current case and that of isotropic case by making Young’s modulus and Poisson ratio values of isotropic and that of transversely isotropic in the transverse direction equal. Numerical results are depicted graphically and then discussed.
In this investigation, the flexural vibration of a prestressed and simply supported rectangular plate carrying moving concentrated masses and resting on bi-parametric (Pasternak) elastic foundation is considered. In order to solve the governing fourth order partial differential equation, a technique based on separation of variables is used to reduce the equation with variable and singular coefficients to a sequence of coupled second order ordinary differential equations. The modified method of Struble and the integral transformations are then employed for the solutions of the reduced equations. The numerical results in plotted curves show that as the value of the axial force in x-direction (Nx) increases, the response amplitudes of the plates decrease, the same effect is produced as the axial force in y-direction (Ny) increases for both cases of moving force and moving mass problems of the prestressed and simply supported rectangular plate resting on Pasternak elastic foundation. The deflection of the plate also decreases in each case as the values of the Shear modulus G0 and the rotatory inertia correction factor R0 increase. Also, the transverse deflections of the prestressed rectangular plates under the actions of moving masses are higher than those when only the force effects of the moving loads are considered, the analysis of resonance shows that resonance is attained earlier in moving mass problem than in moving force problem and the critical speed for the moving mass problem is reached prior to that of the moving force problem which implies that it is risky to rely on a design based on the moving force solution. Furthermore, the response amplitudes of the moving mass problem increase with increasing mass ratio and approach those of the moving force as the mass ratio approaches zero for the prestressed and simply supported rectangular plates resting on uniform Pasternak elastic foundation.
We study the problem of the motion of substance in a channel of a network for the case of channel having two arms. Stationary regime of the flow of the substance is considered. Analytical relationships for the distribution of the substance in the nodes of the arms of the channel are obtained. The obtained results are discussed from the point of view of technological applications of the model (e.g., motion of substances such as water in complex technological facilities).
The review of progress in numerical synthesis and study of strain sensors patterns, which can be used for realization of digital image correlation (DIC) and its applications in engineering practice, is presented. Problems related to monitoring a large area of an objects surface while subsequently increasing the image scale and concentrating observation only to the area where the largest deformation has taken place are considered. An algorithm for numerical synthesizing of specialized strain sensor patterns is proposed. Results from a physical experiment are also reported.
This paper presents an analysis for a micro/nano wedge-platform thrust slider bearing by using the flow factor approach model. The contact-fluid interfacial shear strength was taken into account for describing the inter-facial slippage. The carried load and friction coefficient of the bearing were calculated when different contact-fluid interactions were used. It was found that the interaction strength between the contact and the fluid has a significant contribution to the load-carrying capacity of the bearing, a weak contact-fluid interaction in the bearing inlet zone and its resulting interfacial slippage on the stationary contact surface is beneficial for both the load-carrying capacity and the friction coefficient of the bearing, while a strong contact-fluid interaction in the bearing outlet zone is contrarily harmful. The relative slip amount is linearly distributed in the bearing inlet zone, when the interfacial slippage occurs on the stationary surface in this subzone because of the low interfacial shear strength.