Dénes Szabó (1856–1918) was the second professor of obstetrics and gynecology of the Franz Joseph University from Kolozsvár (Cluj). This is a centennial commemoration. Szabó was born in the family of a great geologist professor at Pest. He studied at the University from Budapest and Strasbourg. He took his doctor’s degree is 1879. He spent a year with medical studies in foreign countries. In 1881 he became assistant to Professor Tivadar Kézmárszky, head of the Gynecological Clinic No. I. from Budapest. He was qualified as private lecturer in gynecology in 1888. In this period he published a lot of studies and review articles in the weekly medical papers Orvosi Hetilap and Gyógyászat. The Kolozsvár professor of obstetrics János Maizner in 1892 got retired. As a result of a competition Szabó was appointed professor of both obstetrics and gynecology. Until 1899 he worked in very poor conditions in a suburb building. Then the new 2 floor hospital from Mikó Street was built, where there were separate sections for obstetrics and gynecology. There he could also train midwives during 5 month courses. He became member of the Medical section of Transylvanian Museum Society, from 1894 up to 1912 he was the editor of its review journal (Értesítő...). Most of his studies were published there. The Medical Faculty elected him three times dean, in 1905/6 he was the rector of the university. He published around 65 studies. Some of them discuss deontological problems or deal with medical history. He was one of the editors of two memorial volumes, one dedicated to Professor Purjesz (1906), the other to Professor Lechner (1915). He compiled the first history of the Medical Faculty in 1896. He was also one of the editors of the monographic album of the Kolozsvár University from 1903. Five of its chapters were written by him. He was awarded with the title of Court Counselor. During WWI he did much for the medical care of wounded soldiers, so he got military awards, too. A number of medical and civil associations elected him president. He died because of gastric cancer at a Budapest hospital. According to his final wish he was buried in the Házsongárd Cemetery
Bilayer and multi-layer tablets are enjoying growing popularity among original drug and generic product manufacturers. Multi-layer tablets have many key benefits compared to classic immediate-release tablets. The use of such solid oral dosage forms simplifies dosing regimens in combination therapy, and thus improves patient compliance. However, the technology of multilayer tablets is demanding and requires precise choice of excipients and production parameters with regard to each technological step. The main benefits of multi-layer tablets, certain aspects of their production and the challenges encountered during the compression process are reviewed in this paper.
Acetaminophen and caffeine, popular therapeutic substances used to relieve pain or alleviate the symptoms of cold. The aims of the study were the comparison of granules, in terms of dissolution rate and moreover the development of spectrophotometric method to the simultaneous determination of both active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in granules. The granules were tested by two pharmacopoeial methods of dissolution for solid dosage forms, and the dissolution profiles for each formulation were compared. A method of simultaneous determination of two medicinal substances by the double calibration method using derivative spectrophotometry was used. Considering the dissolution process carried out in the paddle apparatus, it was shown that more than 80% of acetaminophen and caffeine were released from each of the preparations in a clearly shorter time than 10 minutes. Carrying out the basket test, substances dissolved gradually, much slower than in the paddle method. The time required to release 80% of both active substances from majority of tested preparations was from 30 to 45 minutes. Application of the first derivative spectrophotometric method allows simultaneous determination of acetaminophen and caffeine in the mixture, without the need to separate them first.
Increasing interest has been focused on the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) and gastric cancer (GC). Different cytokines, growth factors and proteins take part in oncogenesis. The aim of our study was to generate a comparison of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) levels, as well as latent membrane protein (LMP-1), Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen (EBVCA), Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) and early antigen (EA) frequency in the serum of patients with GC and OPC. The study involved 50 patients with diagnosed GC and 50 patients with OPC. All studied patients were EBV positive. Fresh-frozen tumor tissue fragments were tested using nested PCR assay for EBV DNA detection. Sera from all individuals were investigated using ELISA tests to detect the presence of EBVCA IgG, EBNA IgG, EA IgG, as well as to determine the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. In patients with GC, the levels of TGF-β and IL-10 were significantly higher than in OPC patients. However, the frequency and level of EBVCA, EBNA and EA in patients with OPC and GC were not significantly different. In contrast, TGF-β and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in EBVaGC, as compared to OPC, suggesting their role in gastric carcinogenesis. The differences in frequency of LMP-1 detection in patients with OPC and GC may suggest different mechanism of oncogenesis. Further studies are required to clarify the role of Epstein-Barr virus in cancer development.
Early amniotomy is one of the main interventions to enhance the labor progress and prevent dystocia in pregnant women. However, the efficacy of amniotomy has not been approved via labor-related indices and outcomes and has remained a subject for debate and future research. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of early amniotomy on labor indices and outcomes in nulliparous women. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 151 singleton pregnant women who were referred to Besat Hospital in Sanandaj, Iran, from March 2016 to March 2018. Participants were randomly divided into an early amniotomy (EA) group and a control group. Duration of the first and second phases of labor, corioamionit, dystocia rate, Apgar score at the first and fifth minutes, prolonged labor and post-partum haemorrhage were evaluated and compared between the two groups. Data were recorded in a checklist and analysed using SPSS Version 23. The p value <0.05 was considered significant. Results showed that labor indices such as duration of the first and second phases, Apgar score one and five minutes after delivery and frequency of prolonged labor, foetal distress and postpartum haemorrhage were significantly improved in patients of the early amniotomy group, compared with the control group (p≤0.05). Early amniotomy significantly decreased the total labor duration without significant increase in the rate of maternal and neonatal complications.
Introduction.Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae are known as human-restricted respiratory microbiota representatives. The aim of the present paper was to assay haemophili prevalence in middle ear effusion specimens in pediatric patients with otitis media with effusion (OME).
Methods. A total of 86 ear effusion specimens (from the left and right ear independently) were collected from 43 pediatric patients with OME. For comparison, 58 nasopharyngeal specimens were taken from 58 pediatric patients prone to recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTI). Isolation and identification of haemophili biotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility was accomplished by standard microbiological methods. The cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of isolates was assayed by the method of aggregation in ammonium sulfate (SAT).
Results. Haemophili were isolated in 25.6% (11/43) of all OME patients: in 5/43 (11.6%)– H. influenzae (biotypes II, III), in 5/43 (11.6%) – H. parainfluenzae, in 1/43 (2.3%) – both species were found. Haemophili-positive nasopharyngeal specimen was found in 27/58 (46.6%) RRTI patients: in 19/58 (32.8%) – H. influenzae, in 8/58 (13.8%) – H. parainfluenzae. About 90% of all haemophili isolates were characterised by extreme to strong CSH. Antimicrobial resistance occurred mainly among H. parainfluenzae (80%) and to a much lower percentage among H. influenzae (33.3%) isolates. The obtained data suggest that both H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae can be involved in pathology of OME in pediatric patients. The high cell surface hydrophobicity can affect on the haemophili prevalence and ear colonization, and induces predisposition to the presence of these bacteria as a biofilm that serves as a virulence factor with great importance for the survival of these opportunistic bacteria and their persistence in the ear environment.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract from the fruit walls of Phaseolus vulgaris pods and to examine the potential mechanism underlying the improvement of the glycemic level. In the course of the study, diabetes mellitus was induced in rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45 mg·kg−1 b.w.). Diabetic and control rats were then orally administered with a single-dose or repeated-dose (28 day) of P. vulgaris extract (200 mg·kg−1). Results show that the extract was found to possess significant hypoglycemic activity, and the study of glucose utilization by isolated rat hemidiaphragm suggests that the aqueous extract may enhance the peripheral utilization of glucose. The subsequent experiments have revealed that the P. vulgaris extract could increase glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) content in skeletal muscle cells of control and diabetic rats. Our data also indicate that the P. vulgaris extract did not affect the content of the insulin receptor, but significantly reduced the total tyrosine kinase activity in skeletal muscle cells of both experimental groups of rats. The present results clearly indicated that P. vulgaris extract may be beneficial for reducing hyperglycemia through its potency in regulation of glucose utilization via GLUT-4, but the current mechanism remains to be unidentified.
Poor water solubility of newly discovered compounds has become the most common challenge in the drug development process. Indeed, poor solubility is considered as the root cause of failure of drug during drug development phases. Moreover, it has also been reported to be the main reason for bioavailability issues such as poor, inconsistent, incomplete and highly variable bioavailability of the marketed products. As per an estimate, approximately 90% of drug molecules suffer with poor water solubility at early stage and approximately 40% of the marketed drugs have bioavailability problems mainly due to poor water solubility. Solubility enhancement of the newly discovered compounds is primary research area for the pharmaceutical industries and research institutions. The conventional techniques to improve aqueous solubility of drugs employ salt formation, prodrug formation, co-crystallization, complexation, amorphous solid dispersion and use of co-solvent, surfactants or hydrotropic agents. Current advancement in the science and technology has enabled the use of relatively new techniques under the umbrella of nanotechnology. These include the development of nanocrystals, nanosuspensions, nanoemulsions, microemulsions, liposomes and nanoparticles to enhance the solubility. This review focuses on the conventional and current approaches of multifold enhancement in the solubility of poorly soluble marketed drugs, including newly discovered compounds.
Various laboratory parameters are commonly used to assess the efficacy of biological treatment (BT). The aim of our study was to assess the correlation between platelet (PLT) indices: (mean platelet volume (MPV), plateletcrit (PCT), platelet distribution width (PDW)), C-reactive protein (CRP) and endoscopic picture in the course of infliximab induction regimen in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. The study enrolled 46 patients with UC – 32 men and 16 women. They were administered infliximab (standard induction therapy). Laboratory tests (CRP and PLT indices) and colonoscopy were performed in all patients during the induction regimen – at 0, 2, and 6 weeks and in follow-up six weeks after the completion of induction therapy. The study revealed a statistically significant decrease in CRP and PLT, and an increase in MPV, together with improvement of endoscopic picture (p <0.001) (MAYO score, MAYO endoscopic subscore) in all patients. PCT and PDW values remained in normal ranges before BT and after the finish of the induction regimen. PCT correlated positively with CRP before the introduction of BT (p = 0.018). In addition, positive correlations between PCT and PLT count were noticed before infliximab induction regimen and in follow-up after the finished of therapy (p <0.001). Additionally, a negative correlation between PLT count and MPV prior to the first dose of infliximab was observed (p=0.032). Our data suggest that PLT indices could be useful biomarkers for determining active UC and for assessing the efficacy of BT. From what we know, this is the first survey devoted to PLT parameters in Polish patients with UC.
Introduction.C. albicans genome sequencing enables investigation of the role of particular genes in biofilm formation involving the yeast-like fungi.
Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the genotypes of C. albicans isolates on the basis of the presence of the selected genes involved in biofilm formation.
Material and methods. The study material included C. albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity of 654 healthy individuals. The strain biofilm-forming capacity was estimated with the MTT assay and menadione. The presence of HWP1, ALS3, TUP1, NGR1, SAM2 and CYS3 genes was investigated.
Results. In total, 15 gene combinations were found, including nine gene combinations for strains with a confirmed biofilm-forming capacity, 11 – for the strains without this capacity, and five – independent of biofilm-forming capacity. A combination involving all the genes occurred in 72.5% of all biofilm-forming strains and in 53.8% of all strains that do not form biofilm. Moreover, the genetic material of 14.3% of all strains not involved in biofilm formation did not contain any of the studied genes. For one of the biofilm-species, no analyzed genes were found.
1. The absence of correlation between gene combinations HWP1, ALS3, TUP1, NGR1, SAM2 and CYS3 and biofilm-forming capacity of the studied C. albicans strains confirms the multigenetic – and not yet fully known – molecular basis of the formation of this structure. This result corresponds to the data reported by other researchers.
2. Knowledge on the genetic foundations of biofilm formation is still developing and the list of biofilm-related genes has been considerably extended.
3. The absence of correlation between the combinations of investigated genes and the biofilm-forming capacity of the studied C. albicans strains confirms a multigenetic, basis of this structure.
4. The research on genes activated or inhibited during biofilm formation is extremely important, because it would enable the development of effective methods to disturb the biofilm forming process at the molecular level. There is a need for such methods in our clinical practice to prevent biofilm formation in the oral cavity.