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Dénes Szabó (1856–1918) was the second professor of obstetrics and gynecology of the Franz Joseph University from Kolozsvár (Cluj). This is a centennial commemoration. Szabó was born in the family of a great geologist professor at Pest. He studied at the University from Budapest and Strasbourg. He took his doctor’s degree is 1879. He spent a year with medical studies in foreign countries. In 1881 he became assistant to Professor Tivadar Kézmárszky, head of the Gynecological Clinic No. I. from Budapest. He was qualified as private lecturer in gynecology in 1888. In this period he published a lot of studies and review articles in the weekly medical papers Orvosi Hetilap and Gyógyászat. The Kolozsvár professor of obstetrics János Maizner in 1892 got retired. As a result of a competition Szabó was appointed professor of both obstetrics and gynecology. Until 1899 he worked in very poor conditions in a suburb building. Then the new 2 floor hospital from Mikó Street was built, where there were separate sections for obstetrics and gynecology. There he could also train midwives during 5 month courses. He became member of the Medical section of Transylvanian Museum Society, from 1894 up to 1912 he was the editor of its review journal (Értesítő...). Most of his studies were published there. The Medical Faculty elected him three times dean, in 1905/6 he was the rector of the university. He published around 65 studies. Some of them discuss deontological problems or deal with medical history. He was one of the editors of two memorial volumes, one dedicated to Professor Purjesz (1906), the other to Professor Lechner (1915). He compiled the first history of the Medical Faculty in 1896. He was also one of the editors of the monographic album of the Kolozsvár University from 1903. Five of its chapters were written by him. He was awarded with the title of Court Counselor. During WWI he did much for the medical care of wounded soldiers, so he got military awards, too. A number of medical and civil associations elected him president. He died because of gastric cancer at a Budapest hospital. According to his final wish he was buried in the Házsongárd Cemetery


To complete the wide range of studies on chemical composition and pharmacological potential of the fruit of Ribes nigrum and Ribes rubrum, this work aimed to perform a comparative morpho-anatomical characterization of the fruits of both species and complete previously records of black currant as frequently studied species. Microslides of fruits were made with rotation microtome, and then cross sections were stained with toluidine blue. Documentation and evaluation were carried out in microphotos. In R. rubrum, the epidermis cells are ovoid to round, while those of R. nigrum are rectangular to almost round. Under the epidermis, in both fruits, there are two layers of oval hypodermal cells. Underneath the hypodermal layers, parenchyma cells of different size with thin walls and scattered collateral closed bundles were detected. The seeds are embedded in a gelatinous sheath having large thin-walled cells. Endocarp separates the arillar tissue from parenchyma cells, in addition, a gap can be found among these layers, endocarp, arillar tissue, and seeds. The seed coat consists of sclerenchyma cells in both species. In conclusion, histological differences and similarities were described in the fruits of the selected Ribes species, highlighted the first morpho-anatomical description of the berry of Ribes rubrum.


This paper presents the obtained results on the chorology and conservation status of the lycopod species identified in Mureș County. It also represents a basis for further studies on monitoring, and establishes conservation measures for these species that are of community interest, included in the IUCN category LC (least concern). During the study, five lycopod species out of the seven listed in Romania were identified. The species are wide spread, occurring in groups that extend over relatively large areas. The conservation status is predominantly good and very good.


Leucojum vernum L. (Amaryllidaceae) is a bulbous geophyte from Central Europe known as medicinal and ornamental plant. Native population of this species can be found in the Peres Forest (parcels number 23-24) from Velyka Dobron Wildlife Reserve (Western Ukraine), monitored continuously since 2014. The aim of this study was the morphometric evaluation of the species and the chemistry analysis of the soil in which the species grow. According to our results the length of leaf sheath was the most variable parameter from the evaluated morphometric indicators (number of leaves, maximum leaf length and width, bract length, leaf sheath length, scape length, and bulb diameter). Correlations were found between maximum leaf length and scape length, but also between maximum leaf length and bract length. Soil chemistry analysis showed that the chemical properties of the soil are favorable for the studied plants. The soil pH was slightly acidic, the humus content and the supply of alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen were high, and the amount of soluble P2O5 was moderate. Differences between the territories were found with respect to the soil agrochemical parameters.


Phytosociological structure of the communities dominated by Scirpus sylvaticus was studied in the mountain area of Mureş County with focus on vegetation community organization, floristic composition and habitat conservation. The vegetation sampling and data analysis were done following standard procedures. The study of wet meadows from the Călimani and Gurghiului Mountains carried out in field during 2015-2019, highlights the presence of hygrophilous coenoses belonging to the Scirpetum sylvatici Ralski 1931 plant association. These wet meadows grow on alluvial, gleyic and acidophilous soils. The identified communities belong to Natura 2000 habitat 6430 Hydrophilous tall-herb fringe communities of plains in the montane to alpine levels. The conservation status of the habitat is good and very good and the floristic composition emphasizes a rich floristic diversity.



This mini-review briefly presents the main types of plant aquaporins, highlighting their importance for different plant species and for plant cellular functions. Aquaporins (AQPs), families of water channel proteins (WCPs) are transmembrane proteins that are present in prokaryotes, animals, plants, and humans. The plant aquaporins are part of the Major Intrinsic Proteins (MIPs) family which resides in the following plant organs: roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. According to the sub-cellular localization, to their sequence homologies and to their phylogenetic distribution, plant aquaporins have been divided in five subgroups: (a) plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs); (b) tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs); (c) Nodulin26-like intrinsic membrane proteins (NIPs); (d) small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) and (e) uncharacterized intrinsic proteins (XIPs). Different subclasses of the plant aquaporins allow several types of transport using: water, glycerol, urea, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, ethanol, methanol, arsenite, lactic acid, and gaseous compounds. Plant aquaporins have a significant role in cell response to cold stress, photosynthesis, plant growth, cell elongation, reproduction, and seed germination.


Introduction: Language disorders defined as schizophasia are one of the key symptoms of schizophrenia, especially in the disorganized form of this psychosis, which is reflected in the description of “loose associations” as one of the core negative symptoms according to P. E. Bleuler. At present, the disruption of text at the level of discourse coherence and syntactic impoverishment at the sentence level are regarded as the linguistic basis of schizophasia. The most often applied tool for clinical assessment of schizophasia is the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) devised by N. Andreasen.

Objective: The paper presents language samples of patients suffering from schizophrenia with a high intensity of schizophasia, but above all, text samples created by speech therapy students, which were supposed to simulate the language pathology of the sick. The aim of the study was to compare these two corps of the text in order to assess how classes on schizophasia affect the understanding of specific language phenomena in the field of text coherence disorders, such as derailment, incoherence, distractible speech, loss of goal.


1. Text body obtained from two patients suffering from schizophrenia with a high level of schizophasia.

2. Corpus of the text constructed by two students of speech therapy, during academic classes on schizophasia.

Results: This study presents specimens of speech by schizophrenic patients with a high intensity of schizophasia, but first of all text specimens authored by logopedics students, which were intended to simulate the language pathology of patients suffering from schizophasia.

Conclusions: The essence of schizophasic language disorders is apparently the disorders of text coherence at the pragmatic, semantic and syntactic levels. The presented schizophasic utterances constructed by logopedics students are very similar to genuine specimens of schizophasic speech – they are proof of the understanding of what schizophasia is. We may hope that the presentation of language disorders from the texts spoken by patients with schizophrenia, and then the attempt to construct analogous utterances, is conducive to better understanding of the essence of schizophasia, i.e. the disruption of text at the level of building the whole utterance but also at the sentence (phrase) level in the form of syntactic impoverishment.


Introduction: Recently the issue of emotional intelligence has become a widespread theme of discussion. This review paper is made a contribution to this debate. Discovering of effective predictive and protective factors for depression would have far-reaching consequences for society, science and economy.

Material and Methods: To investigate this issue, we searched articles available in the Google Scholar and PudMed databases under the following terms: emotional intelligence, depression, emotional intelligence and depression for the years 1999-2019. Accessible literature allowed to show basic information of emotional intelligence, detect a system of relationships between emotional intelligence level and depression, and present recommendations.

Results and Discussion: The result of this analysis is a statement that all components of emotional intelligence can be a defense against depression. People with high abilities in regulation their own emotions have large social support, what protect them against depression. The capable managing one’s own and others’ emotions create large and deep interpersonal relationships, what provide more emotional support and tangible assistance during everyday challenges. Stressful life events are among the most powerful predictors of depression, and high level of emotional intelligence enable to cope with them more effectively.

Conclusions: The present text will constitute an impulse to explore this theme more. Moreover, there is a recommendation for researchers to create more effective and simplified tests for examining the level of emotional intelligence in case of spreading them much more and use them in a routine psychiatric practice. A confirmation of the title hypothesis can stand a key to struggle with depression.


The purpose of the study is to check whether the memory will be strengthened after three months of metacognitive training using such mnemonic techniques as Mind Maps and Sketchnoting in children diagnosed with ADHD. According to the most recent, the Fifth Edition of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, working memory plays a key role both in the symptoms of ADHD and in secondary problems such as: learning disorders, professional or social difficulties.

Method: 45 schoolchildren took part in the experimental study (M=1,42; SD = 10,41;). .Each child had a diagnosed psychomotor overexcitability and attention disorders. The participants were randomly qualified into three groups: the first group was tested for the effect of Mind Maps; the second group, for the effect of Sketchnoting while the third group was assigned the role of a control group. All of the groups were administered The Deferred Naming Test before and after the training. This assessment method belongs to the PU-1 Set of Diagnostic Tests.

Results: The working memory improved in each of the three groups. The smallest number of errors were made by the children in the group with Mind Maps, while the biggest number of errors were made by the children in the control group.

Conclusion: Mind Maps can be an important complement to other forms of therapeutic treatment for children with ADHD diagnosis. Regular use of this tool in education or therapy strengthens the memory. The improvement of this executive function can be substantial in learning to write and read (memorization of the correct shapes of letters), remembering and recalling from memory the rules agreed with the child or better time orientation.