This paper presents experimental research on expanded clay aggregate concrete. The aim of the investigations was to determine if the pre-wetting of expanded clay aggregate has an effect on the freeze-thaw durability of the expanded clay aggregate concrete. Five concrete series based on the same concrete mix design were made and tested. The degree of pre-wetting of the aggregate was varied: dry aggregate was used in the first series, aggregate with a moisture content of 10% was used in series IA and IB and aggregate with a moisture content of 25% was used in series IIA and IIB. Also the approach to the production process was varied: in series A the water contained in the aggregate was taken into account in the global water-cement ratio (consequently a reduced amount of water was added to the mix), whereas in series B the nominal amount of water was added to the mix (as in the case of dry aggregate). The freeze-thaw resistance criterion was based on the assessment of the decrease of compressive strength and increase in weight loss after exposure to freeze-thaw cycles. The expanded clay aggregate concrete's strength and mass decrements caused by freeze-thaw cycling were used as the measure of its freeze-thaw resistance. The investigations have shown that the pre-wetting of expanded clay aggregate has an effect on the freeze-thaw durability of the expanded clay aggregate concrete. The differences of concrete compressive strength decrease related to freeze-thaw durability may be 2 to 5 times greater when inadequate method of calculating mixing water for concrete is used.
This paper deals with elementary geotechnical tests: triaxial and direct shear of cohesionless sand using the discrete element method (DEM). The capabilities of the numerical DEM code are shown, with a special focus on the early phenomena appearance in localization zones. The numerical tests were performed in 3D conditions with spherical grains. Contact moments law was introduced due to simulate not perfectly round sand grains. The influence of different physical parameters was studied, e.g. initial density or confining pressure. The sieve curve corresponded to the Karlsruhe sand ; however, in some tests, it was linearly scaled. Special attention was laid on the behaviour of the sand grains inside localization, e.g. rotation, porosity, fluctuations, etc. and forces redistribution. Emphasis was given on the pre-failure regime and early localization predictors.
The article presents a method of calibration of material parameters of a numerical model based on a genetic algorithm, which allows to match the calculation results with measurements from the geotechnical monitoring network. This method can be used for the maintenance of objects managed by the observation method, which requires continuous monitoring and design alterations. The correctness of the calibration method has been verified on the basis of artificially generated data in order to eliminate inaccuracies related to approximations resulting from the numerical model generation. Using the example of the tailing dam model the quality of prediction of the selected measurement points was verified. Moreover, changes of factor of safety values, which is an important indicator for designing this type of construction, were analyzed. It was decided to exploit the case of dam of reservoir, which is under continuous construction, that is dam height is increasing constantly, because in this situation the use of the observation method is relevant.
This paper presents a methodology based on the finite element method to simulate the flow of granular materials. Moreover, it allows proper estimation of dynamic pressure during silo discharge since this subject is still under discussion, especially for designing silos with an insert (an input element). A 2-D simulation of the discharge process of a cylindrical silo with cone and a central discharging orifice was performed. Two cases were studied, with and without using insert in silo. Numerical analysis was carried out with the help of the uncoupled arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) approach. The resulting dynamic pressure distribution on the silo wall for each of the two cases was inferred numerically. The resulting values of pressure were compared with the results of the experimental study on a cylindrical metal silo to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical model in determining the dynamic wall pressure, especially in the case of using an insert in silo during discharge.
The use of waste materials in civil engineering applications has gained importance nowadays. Consuming limited natural resources and increasing waste disposal costs have led researchers to evaluate waste materials for different geotechnical applications. In this respect, some waste materials are used as reinforcement in soils to improve their engineering properties. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the usability of waste polypropylene fiber as a reinforcement material in high plasticity fine-grained soils. For this purpose, waste toothbrush bristle (WTB) was used as a polypropylene fiber reinforcement material and added to fine-grained soil at ratios of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8% by dry total weight. The effect of WTB on freezing–thawing behavior and unconfined compression strength of unreinforced and reinforced clayey soil was evaluated. The results indicated that addition of WTB to high plasticity clay improved its behavior against freezing–thawing. Also, undrained shear strength increases with respect to increment in WTB ratio.
The aim of this study is to consider the effects of the variation of shear modulus ratio (G/G0) and damping ratio (ξ) of soil, obtained by a linear iterative method based on the design spectra of seismic codes, the soil environment in terms of uncertainties in shear modulus using Monte Carlo simulations and the foundation damping (ξf) of flexible base for analyses of the Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) problems. A squat structure with circular shallow foundation resting on a soil layer over a homogeneous half-space is studied by using cone model and considering seismic zone effect on structural response. Firstly, after showing the effects of the correction of G and ξ on impedance functions and the responses of soil-foundation-structure system, a study is carried out to compare these effects to those of the modelling of uncertainties in shear modulus as random variations. Secondly, a comparative analysis on design response spectra and base shear forces was carried out for four seismic codes (Algerian Seismic Rules RPA99-2003, Eurocode 8–2004, International Building Code IBC-2015 and Indian Code IS-1893-2002) considering the three cases of SSI: SSI effects (initial G and ξ), nonlinear SSI (corrected G and ξ) and stochastic SSI (random G with COV = 20%) compared to the fixed base case. Results show that the correction of G and ξ, according to the equivalent nonlinear method in all the cases, leads to a remarkable decrease in peak responses but show a huge amount of reduction in the second study for IBC-2015 and IS-1893-2002 codes compared to the other codes.
This article concerns the assessment of selected physical and mechanical properties of a dump soil. The dump soil is a specific soil with a very heterogeneous internal structure. Next to each other, there may be lumps and crumbs of cohesive soils mixed with non-cohesive soils accompanied by a very diverse admixture of organic substance. In addition, the soil in the waste dump, in spatial terms, may significantly differ in consistency and density. This is the result of the process of forming a dump soil, which takes place in three stages: excavation, transport and dumping. A heterogeneous soil deposited within the waste dump is subject to further processes: consolidation, compaction and creeping. Changes occurring in the course of these processes have a significant impact on the development of the properties of the dump soil.
Due to the large diversity of the tested soils, the results of their properties were divided into two groups, based on type and consistency of soil. This allows us to estimate the selected properties of the dump soil only on the basis of their macroscopic analysis.
In this study, firstly, the behavior of a high steel frame equipped with tuned mass damper (TMD) due to several seismic records is investigated considering the structural and seismic uncertainties. Then, machine learning methods including artificial neural networks (ANN), decision tree (DT), Naïve Bayes (NB) and support vector machines (SVM) are used to predict the behavior of the structure. Results showed that among the machine learning models, SVM with Gaussian kernel has better performance since it is capable of predicting the drift of stories and the failure probability with R2 value equal to 0.99. Furthermore, results of feature selection algorithms revealed that when using TMD in high steel structures, seismic uncertainties have greater influences on drift of stories in comparison with structural uncertainties. Findings of this study can be used in design and probabilistic analysis of high steel frames equipped with TMDs.
This paper identifies the threats and risks of a terrorist attack on a critical infrastructure facility based on the example of Żelazny Most Tailings Storage Facility (OUOW). The threat analysis primarily took into account the threats of deliberate human actions. Identification of potential threats concerning the infrastructure surrounding the facility was conducted based on information that is readily available on the Internet. The reasons why it may be a potential target were also justified. Numerical calculations of the stress–deformation scale of the initial state of the reservoir, based on the Biot model with the Kelvin–Voight rheological skeleton, were presented as a starting point for in-depth research on the scale of threats and risks to the reservoir. The presented numerical model can be a starting point for calculating the stability of a reservoir subjected to explosives. The facility constitutes a major element of Lubińsko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy (Lubin-Głogów Copper District). OUOW Żelazny Most is the biggest such facility in Europe and is utilized to collect tailing waist. When expanded in its southern quarter, the facility will be the biggest in the world.