Whilst, in many countries, the scale of forest loss from business-as-usual development is immense, in Poland, this problem does not exist. However, obtaining additional land areas for afforestation is a main issue in Poland. In Poland, after the World War II, the forest area has been systematically growing. In 1945, the forest area was about 6.5 million ha, and the forest cover was 21%. In 2016, the forest area reached 9.2 million ha, and forest cover amounted to 29.5%. Today, there are 0.24 ha of forests per one inhabitant of Poland. The size of wood resources in stands is also changing. In 1945, forest resources on the trunk amounted to approximately 906 million m3, and in 2016, it reached 2.4 million m3. The problem, however, is the uneven distribution of forests in Poland. Forests in Poland are very strictly protected by law. There are two most important acts, Forest Act of 2001 and Nature Conservation Act of 2004, that regulate principles for the retention, protection and augmentation of forest resources. Over the past decades in Poland, the social demands regarding non-economical functions of forest such as recreational activities, soil and water protection and mitigation of global warming became an important and constantly growing challenge for forest managers. Thus we suggest that, first of all, it is very important to extract the leading function for a given forest area. Interactions between development and conservations policies are very tied and may suggest the need of their integration. In this article, we present the concept of development policy for forest management and forest protection in Poland.
In forest production, there is an emerging tendency towards the planting of fast-growing trees as attractive, renewable energy sources. Hence, efforts were made to develop a method of micropropagation by organogenesis of seven clones of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) that are resistant to propagation by traditional vegetative methods, as well as one plus tree (no. 9755) at the age of 60, to see if the age of the mother plant is a limitation in the micropropagation of black locust trees. Overall results suggest that Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 30 g l−1 sucrose, 0.6 mg l−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg l−1 naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) is better for the propagation of each genotype of R. pseudoacacia than Woody Plant Medium with the same growth regulators, and the age of the donor plant does not affect the organogenic potential. Recalcitrance to adventitious rooting from adventitious shoot formation is a major limitation for the clonal micropropagation of forest trees. Our results showed that although the roots were also formed spontaneously in the growth medium without growth hormones for the tested black locust clones, the application of auxin increased the total root length compared to that in the medium with active carbon and control. A significant effect of the additives of hormone and sucrose on the total root length was found. Increasing the sucrose concentration stimulated the induction of roots in each of the tested concentrations (5, 10, 15 or 20 g l−1). Additionally, the change in sugar dose in the rooting medium caused significant differences in total root length.
The term forest fire risk means the existence of such conditions that would make possible the occurrence of a fire in the forest environment. The base for the effectiveness of a forest fire protection system is the evaluation of the forest fire risk followed by adequate organization of the system. This article presents methods for determination of the forest susceptibility to fire known as potential forest fire risk. The below presented methods were developed by Forest Research Institute as the results of the projects commissioned by the General Directorate of State Forests. The forest fire risk category and stand flammability classes are the methods included here. The forest fire risk category was elaborated already in 1975 for the first time. Until today, after the last modification in 2008, it is the fundamental document for the polish forest fire protection system. The purpose of this modification was to increase the determination accuracy of the fire risk category of all polish forest, regardless of its ownership type and at the different administrative level. The categorization method, however, doesn’t reflect the fire risk in micro scale. The attempt to solve that problem was made in 2018 while developing the methodology of stand flammability classes. It was assumed that ground cover fuel models will be developed for the most flammable forest habitat types including ground cover types, dominant species, age class and geographical localisation.
Forests in Kampinos National Park contain some of the most valuable tree populations in Poland. Particularly interesting are stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) that are more than 130-years-old. Periodic observations of the health of tree crowns in these stands facilitates a wide range of research investigations. This article evaluates statistical relationships between allometric features of trees and the occurrence and severity of crown defoliation.
Observations were made of 5 pine populations in 2017 and 2019, in which detailed data were collected for 250 trees. The percentage loss of the assimilation apparatus and level of stand damage were calculated.
The results revealed a significant increase in defoliation between 2017 and 2019. The deterioration of crown condition was particularly evident on the most fertile sites. The degree of crown damage was not correlated with tree height or diameter. The greatest increase in defoliation between 2017 and 2019 was observed for the most severely damaged trees growing on fertile sites.
This study contributes analyses aimed at correlating the allometric features of a stand with its health. Such information is valuable as it describes the status of the analysed stands, as well as providing information about how trees have responded to environmental conditions. In this study, crown defoliation coincided with a period of drought in Poland, which appears to have affected pine stands. For these reasons, the results are of both scientific and practical value.
Global climate change has mainly impacted the forest ecosystems in Europe. Today, it is not fully understood how these changes will affect the reproductive process of trees on seed orchards. The main aim of the study is to evaluate the growth, condition and reproductive function of Scots pine clones of Finnish origin after moving them to the southern direction of natural distribution area. Variability and seed productivity of 25-year-old clones of Scots pine of Finnish origin in the clonal seed orchard under climatic conditions of the central part of Ukraine (Vinnitsa region) was investigated. Grafted seedlings of Scots pine of Finnish origin were moved southward at a distance of over 1,500 km. Climatic conditions of Vinnytsia region, where the clones were displaced, differed by an increase in the mean and maximum temperatures by 3.3–3.6ºC, as well as an increase in the mean temperatures during the cold period and a rise in the minimum by 2.1–2.3ºC. The climate in the seed orchard location was characterized by the most significant increase in the mean temperatures in April and May (5.3–5.8ºC), which greatly influenced the intensity of the formation of microstrobili and macrostrobili. The ratio of precipitation to the amount of temperatures decreased more than twice. Analysis of the grafted trees’ vitality of Finnish origin and seed progeny of the local population, estimation of their intensity (height, diameter), state (category of the state) and reproductive processes (intensity of formation of microstrobili and cones) was carried out on the clonal seed orchard. In conditions of climate change, most of the clones of Finnish origin were characterized by a higher intensity of flowering compared to the local population. Some clones of Finnish origin (E80 and E729) dominated the local population by the seed yield. According to a comprehensive analysis of vitality, the intensity of growth and reproductive capacity, the best clones of Finnish origin were E80, E1883 and E2254. Low adaptive ability was noted in the clones E2312, K634 and K801. According to the research results, it was found that changes in climatic conditions did not significantly affect the vitality, development and condition of the clones. There was observed intensification of the formation of microstrobili and cones. Seed viability and quality of Scots pine of Finnish origin obtained on seed orchards located in the southern conditions requires further research.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of algal oil with very high level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) used as fat source in the diet for laying hens, on egg yolk lipids fatty acid composition, as well as egg production and egg quality indices, in comparison with other dietary fat sources. The experiment was carried out on 168 ISA Brown hens (25 to 60 wks of age), allocated to 7 groups of 12 replicates (cages), with two birds in each cage. The experimental diets were supplemented with 2% of different fat sources, i.e. soybean oil (SO), coconut oil (CO), rapeseed oil (RO), linseed oil (LO), camelina oil (CAO), fish oil (FO), or algal oil (AO). Laying performance indices, i.e. egg production, mean egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or egg and eggshell quality parameters were not affected by used fat sources (P>0.05). Dietary fat sources significantly influenced on egg yolk lipids fatty acids composition. Thus, AO addition caused some changes in the yolk lipid profile that were favorable from the dietary perspective, i.e., increased concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (P<0.05). However, boiled eggs from hens fed a diet with AO were characterized by an inferior flavour and taste to those from other groups. In conclusion, the results of this experiment, have shown that the use of AO in the laying hens nutrition is an efficient way to increase the deposition of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) in eggs, without negative effect on egg performance, however further researches, aiming to establish optimal AO dietary level that does not adversely affect the organoleptic properties of eggs, are needed.
The knowledge of the existing levels and the interrelationships between various blood and milk parameters is very useful for the analysis and monitoring of homeostasis high-yielding dairy cows. The aim of the study was to evaluate these values and correlations for selected blood markers of liver function aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, albumin, glucose, cholesterol) and selected milk parameters: somatic cell count (SCC), colony-forming units (CFU), fat, protein, lactose, dry matter (DM), fat-free dry matter (FDM), and milk production in cows during late lactation period. At the same time blood and milk samples were collected from 11 clinically healthy milking cows in later lactation period. The 11 selected cows were examined once a day for 3 days resulting in 33 sets of blood and milk samples for laboratory and statistical analysis. Significant positive correlations were observed between: ALT and albumin, ALT and cholesterol, GGT and glucose, albumin and cholesterol, CFU and fat, CFU and DM, SCC and protein, fat and DM, protein and FDM, lactose and FDM, GPT and FDM, albumin and protein, albumin and FDM, glucose and fat, as well as significant negative correlations between: AST and ALT, AST and GGT, AST and albumin, CFU and lactose, fat and lactose, fat and FDM, lactose and DM, DM and FDM, AST and SCC, AST and protein, AST and FDM, ALT and fat, ALT and DM, glucose and DM, cholesterol and CFU. The results obtained may be important for detecting of different biochemical pathways and helpful in estimating, predicting or determining trends, the direction of changes in liver functions and assessing the risk of alert levels for liver blood markers, when only daily results of milk parameters are available.
The aim of the study was to determine meat quality in cockerels of two multipurpose breeds reared to different ages. The study involved 30 cockerels each of two native breeds: Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) and Rhode Island Red (R-11). The results showed that cockerels of the native breeds Rhode Island Red (R-11) and Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) represent a good starting material for niche production of poultry meat R-11 cockerels exhibited a better rate of weight gain and their carcasses had higher yellowness and redness values compared to Ż-33 birds. The carcasses of both cockerel breeds had lower breast and higher leg muscle percentage, and their meat contained more collagen and protein and less fat. As birds aged, body weight and abdominal fat percentage increased, and giblets percentage decreased in the cockerels of both breeds, whereas in the R-11 breed dressing percentage increased, leg bone percentage decreased, yellowness (a*) increased and redness (b*) decreased. Neither genotype nor slaughter age had a significant effect on chemical composition of the breast and leg muscles. In both breeds, the breast and leg muscle quality traits were more affected by age than genotype.
Increased interest in the production of rabbit meat justifies the need to assess and improve the welfare of these animals not only during the production cycle but also at slaughter. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different stunning methods on the level of blood biochemical parameters (stress indicators), and meat quality of slaughter rabbits. Rabbits of the Hycole line (n = 60), were subjected to the following stunning methods: mechanical with a non-penetrating captive bolt (group I; n = 20), mechanical by hitting a narrow rod on the head (group II; n = 20), and electrical stunning (n = 20). In the stunning groups there were no differences found in the blood level of insulin, cortisol, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, and protein content (P>0.05). The stunning method did not affect the pH of rabbit meat (P=0.768), but significantly influenced the L* and b* colour parameters. The muscles of longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from group of rabbits mechanically stunned by hitting a narrow rod on the head, were the darkest (L * = 58.4), with the lowest yellowness values (b* = 4.04). The meat of electrically stunned rabbits was characterised by higher drip loss (P<0.001), lower plasticity (P=0.043), and higher free water content (P=0.043). From the analysed texture measures, only the Warner Bratzler Shear Energy values of the cooked meat were affected by the stunning method. These values were higher in the meat of the mechanically stunned groups compared to the electrically stunned rabbits (P=0.042). The percentage of dry matter, crude protein, extractable fat and water to protein ratio, were affected only by the muscle type (P<0.001). To conclude, the rabbit meat was characterised by good quality, with only slight differences between the groups. No differences were found in the stress reaction of rabbits subjected to the examined stunning methods.