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Acrylates are plastic materials formed by the polymerization of monomers, which are recognized as powerful sensitizers that may cause allergic contact dermatitis both in occupational and non-occupational environment. In the occupational setting, the most exposed workers are the dentists, dental technicians, prosthesis technicians, printers, painters, fiberglass workers and nail technicians. We describe four cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in nail technicians caused by acrylic compounds that illustrate numerous clinical manifestations. Clinical manifestations ranged from edema, erythema, scaling and fissuring fingertips to erythematous patches around the chin, mandible and abdomen. Patch testing results revealed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in all patients. Of the four patients, two changed jobs, one stopped exposure because of pregnancy and one patient continued working, showing no improvement, despite undergoing treatment. These cases underline the importance of improvement of preventive measures in the workplace.


Introduction: Combretum species has been utilised for decades in African indigenous medical practices for the treatment of several parasitic infections.

Objectives: This study aims at investigating the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal properties of Combretum racemosum, Combretum platypterum and Combretum zenkeri.

Methods: The leaf extracts of the plants were screened against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum using Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay; promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania donovani; and Trypanosoma brucei brucei using Alamar Blue assay. Cytotoxicity screening were also carried out on African green monkey kidney cell line (Vero) and human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cell lines.

Results: C. racemosum was active against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of P. falciparum (IC50 of 25.6 and 26.7 µg/ml, respectively) and exerted significant antiprotozoal activities against T. brucei brucei (IC50 = 18.44 µg/ml). The extract of C. platypterum displayed a slightly lower antiplasmodial activity when compared to C. racemosum, while C. zenkeri was inactive against the parasites. In addition, the extracts failed to display significant inhibitory activity on the proliferation of L. donovani.

Conclusions: This study supports the ethnomedicinal use of C. racemosum. Further research needs to be carried out to identify the antiprotozoal compounds in C. racemosum, as this could be explored for possible antiprotozoal drug development.


Introduction: Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium (L.) Holub) is a common weed growing on meadows, roadside and agricultural wasteland, creating vast, rapidly spreading fields.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts from fresh fireweed, harvested at three ripening stages.

Methods: Analysis of antioxidative activity was carried out by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. Total polyphenol and total flavonoid content were also determined. Plant material was extracted using ultra-sound-assisted green extraction technique with methanol, ethanol and isopropanol at different concentrations and water.

Results: The highest antioxidant activity evaluated by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP was found for the extracts prepared in 70% ethanol. The highest content of total polyphenols were observed in extracts in 70% ethanol, whereas the highest content of flavonoids extracts in undiluted methanol.

Conclusion: Epilobium angustifolium harvested at fruit ripening stage seems to be a valuable source of antioxidants.


Bilayer and multi-layer tablets are enjoying growing popularity among original drug and generic product manufacturers. Multi-layer tablets have many key benefits compared to classic immediate-release tablets. The use of such solid oral dosage forms simplifies dosing regimens in combination therapy, and thus improves patient compliance. However, the technology of multilayer tablets is demanding and requires precise choice of excipients and production parameters with regard to each technological step. The main benefits of multi-layer tablets, certain aspects of their production and the challenges encountered during the compression process are reviewed in this paper.


During periodic occupational medical checkup, in a sample including all employees from two high schools, a secondary school and a kindergarten, we administered through voluntary completion, questionnaires which assessed the employees’ occupational stress in terms of individual characteristics, anxiety, sense of self-efficacy, work ability, emotional exhaustion and health status (using ShortForm 36 questionnaire). A number of 233 questionnaires were returned. Only the occupational stressor represented by communication with superiors correlates significantly negatively with work ability in all four units. Work ability and communication with superiors also have average scores which differ significantly and are concordant in all four units. In the secondary school, work ability has the highest average value and the lowest average value of “communication with superiors” stressor. The same values are decreasing for WAI in order, from high school 2 to high school 1 and kindergarten while the stressor represented by communication with superiors has increasing values in order from high school no 2 to high school no. 1, and kindergarten. These results show that programmes to reduce occupational stress in school units should primarily address the school unit leadership in order to improve their communication with employees.


Acetaminophen and caffeine, popular therapeutic substances used to relieve pain or alleviate the symptoms of cold. The aims of the study were the comparison of granules, in terms of dissolution rate and moreover the development of spectrophotometric method to the simultaneous determination of both active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in granules. The granules were tested by two pharmacopoeial methods of dissolution for solid dosage forms, and the dissolution profiles for each formulation were compared. A method of simultaneous determination of two medicinal substances by the double calibration method using derivative spectrophotometry was used. Considering the dissolution process carried out in the paddle apparatus, it was shown that more than 80% of acetaminophen and caffeine were released from each of the preparations in a clearly shorter time than 10 minutes. Carrying out the basket test, substances dissolved gradually, much slower than in the paddle method. The time required to release 80% of both active substances from majority of tested preparations was from 30 to 45 minutes. Application of the first derivative spectrophotometric method allows simultaneous determination of acetaminophen and caffeine in the mixture, without the need to separate them first.


Increasing interest has been focused on the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) and gastric cancer (GC). Different cytokines, growth factors and proteins take part in oncogenesis. The aim of our study was to generate a comparison of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) levels, as well as latent membrane protein (LMP-1), Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen (EBVCA), Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) and early antigen (EA) frequency in the serum of patients with GC and OPC. The study involved 50 patients with diagnosed GC and 50 patients with OPC. All studied patients were EBV positive. Fresh-frozen tumor tissue fragments were tested using nested PCR assay for EBV DNA detection. Sera from all individuals were investigated using ELISA tests to detect the presence of EBVCA IgG, EBNA IgG, EA IgG, as well as to determine the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. In patients with GC, the levels of TGF-β and IL-10 were significantly higher than in OPC patients. However, the frequency and level of EBVCA, EBNA and EA in patients with OPC and GC were not significantly different. In contrast, TGF-β and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in EBVaGC, as compared to OPC, suggesting their role in gastric carcinogenesis. The differences in frequency of LMP-1 detection in patients with OPC and GC may suggest different mechanism of oncogenesis. Further studies are required to clarify the role of Epstein-Barr virus in cancer development.


Introduction: Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. is an annual plant with small flowers in yellow and claret. In dyeing process, a whole range of colours can be obtained using various methods.

Objective: The aim of the study was to present a wide range of colors of the little-known plant C. tinctoria. and its health promoting properties.

Methods: In our research, we selected 3 types of wool: Polish Merino, Żelaźnieńska, and Polish Lowland Sheep and compared the colours obtained on these wools using 6 dyeing methods.

Results: The results indicate that the basic colour of wool influences the intensity of colour after dyeing as well as the type of the used mordant, which determines the obtained colour. A whole range of very intense colours was obtained from very small flowers of C. tinctoria.

Conclusions: Flowers are a very good and efficient raw material that gives intense colors on wool. An additional advantage is the plant's health-promoting properties. The plant is still little explored in this respect.


Hydrogen sulphide, a highly toxic gas, can be used in crenotherapy to balance all metabolic processes (minerals, fats and proteins). The main aims of this study were to correlate the weather characteristics with the atmospheric H2S level and to evaluate the antidote activity of B12 Vitamin in the case of prolonged exposure to this compound. 46 volunteers, people from the medical staff of an important Romanian thermal water spring spa, with professional exposure at H2S, were enrolled in this study; numerical data about their blood pressure, atmospheric H2S concentration and about the weather conditions were collected every month for one year. The results indicate an improvement in the blood pressure of volunteers treated with Vitamin B12; no significant correlation between the concentration of total urinary sulphur and the concentration of atmospheric H2S level was found.


Introduction: Plants are a rich source of healing substances. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide while breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are potential founder cells for metastasis. Therefore, their assessment may be used for monitoring of treatment as well as detecting cancer metastatis. Hence, it is suggested that the number of CTCs may be a valuable tumour biomarker during therapy.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to detect CTCs in breast cancer and to validate the method of assessment of CTC count using CytoTrack CT11 technology.

Methods: MCF-7 cells were sorted by a FACSARIA flow cytometer from blood samples derived from patients who have not been diagnosed with cancer. Identification and quantitative assessment of MCF-7 cells in blood samples were determined by flow sorting. Then, blood samples containing MCF-7 cells or without MCF-7 were scanned with the use of an automated fluorescence scanning microscope.

Results: In in vitro model analysing the glass CytoDisc™ with stained MCF-7 cells, we noted the correlation between the amount of observed tumour cells and expected number of tumour cells. Moreover, coefficient of variation in case of the recovery rate of the assumed number of MCF-7 cells was 30%, 17%, 18% and 15%, respectively.

Conclusion: Our study suggest that CTCs could be predictive factor in patients with metastatic cancer especially in breast cancer.