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Study aim: It is important for therapists to incorporate new practical methods into therapy programs when they have demonstrable efficacy in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Investigating the acute effects of myofascial release techniques (MFR) and passive stretching (PS) on hind foot loading and the severity of spasticity in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) was the aim of the study.

Material and methods: Following the initial evaluation, 10 participants with MS (n = 20 feet) were given MFR for the plantar flexor muscle group. After the day following the first visit, participants were asked to come again and PS was applied to the plantar flexor muscle groups after the evaluation. The severity of spasticity was assessed with the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Dynamic loading parameters of the hind foot – medial and lateral maximum pressure (N/cm2), active contact areas (cm2), contact percentiles (%) – were evaluated with dynamic pedobarography. Participants of the study were evaluated four times: (1) at the initial evaluation, (2) after MFR application, (3) 24 hours after the initial evaluation (pre-PS), (4) after PS.

Results: There were no differences in MAS (p > 0.05) according to time-dependent analyses (p > 0.05). After MFR, the maximum pressure of the medial heel and active contact area were increased (p < 0.05) and there was a carryover effect on the maximum pressure of the right foot.

Conclusions: This study showed that MFR was an effective method for management of plantar flexor spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis in the short term and there was a carryover effect in favor of MFR. There was no additional effect of PS.


Study aim: Several sprint interval training applications with different slope angles in the literature mostly focused on sprint running time and kinematic and dynamic properties of running. There is a lack of comparative studies investigating aerobic and anaerobic power. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of sprint interval training on sloping surfaces on anaerobic and aerobic power.

Material and methods: A total of 34 male recreationally active men aged 20.26 ± 1.68 years and having a BMI of 21.77 ± 1.74 were assigned to one of the five groups as control (CON), uphill training (EXP 1), downhill training (EXP 2), uphill + downhill training (EXP 3) and horizontal running training (EXP 4) groups. Gradually increased sprint interval training was performed on horizontal and sloping surfaces with an angle of 4°. The training period continued for three days a week for eight weeks. The initial and the final aerobic power was measured by an oxygen analyser and anaerobic power was calculated from the results of the Margaria-Kalamen staircase test.

Results: Following the training programme, an increase in aerobic power was found in all training groups (EXP 1 = 20.79%, EXP 2 = 14.95%, EXP 3 = 26.85%, p < 0.01) and EXP 4 = 20.46%) (p < 0.05) in comparison with the CON group (0.12%), but there were no differences among the training groups. However, significant increases in anaerobic power were found in uphill training (4.91%) and uphill + downhill training (8.35%) groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed that all sprint interval studies on horizontal and sloping surfaces have a positive effect on aerobic power, and uphill and combined training are the most effective methods for the improvement of anaerobic power.


Study aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of postural disorders and their associated risk factors among high school girls in the city of Tabriz, Iran.

Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 female students aged 14 to 18 years. Students were examined using a scoliometer, a Debrunner kyphometer, and a flexible ruler, and were directly studied for genu varum/valgum. The information about possible risk factors such as age, BMI, school bag, study time, use of social networks, and physical activity was collected through demographic survey and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 22 through independent t-test, chi-square, and logistic regression.

Results: 181 participants (45%) had one or more abnormalities such as scoliosis (4%), kyphosis (5%), genu varum (5.7%), genu valgum (9.7%), hyperlordosis (11.2%), and asymmetrical shoulder (24.5%). The risk of hyperlordosis increased with increase in weight (OR: 1.08, 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.15; p = 0.014) and BMI (OR: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.13 to 1.67; p = 0.002). Moreover, the odds for genu valgum increased with increase in weight (OR: 1.07, 95%CI: 1.01 to 1.13; p = 0.045) and BMI (OR: 1.84, 95%CI: 1.29 to 2.62; p < 0.001); but it decreased with increase in age (OR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.39 to 0.98; p = 0.039) and not using a study table (OR: 0.31, 95%CI: 0.12 to 0.78; p = 0.013).

Conclusions: Forty-five percent of female students had one or more postural abnormalities. Asymmetrical shoulder was the most common disorder. Weight and BMI were associated with genu valgum and hyperlordosis.


Study aim: To determine the level and internal structure of profiles of coordination motor abilities in elite judokas and badminton players compared to a group of non-athletes.

Material and methods: The material for the study was the results collected from 12 competitors of the Polish national badminton team (age: 22.7 ± 4.5), 10 members of the national judo team who represented mean weight categories (age: 23.0 ± 3.3) and 25 non-athletes, who were male university students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport (age: 23.0 ± 0.8). The scope of the study included basic somatic features and selected coordination motor abilities measured by means of computer tests.

Results: Statistically significant differences between badminton players and judokas were obtained for reaction times (visual, auditory and selective) as well as spatial orientation. In all cases, a higher level was found for badminton players. Furthermore, analysis of differences between badminton players and non-athletes revealed statistically significant differences only for the selective reaction time. A substantial differentiation of the internal structure of the models of coordination motor abilities was obtained. This pattern was particularly noticeable in the group of judokas and badminton players, where the difference between characteristics was ca. 0.76 SD. Substantially smaller differences (0.21 SD) between particular variables included in the coordination profile were found for non-athlete university students.

Conclusion: The lower results of the elite judokas show the need for developing the coordination motor abilities during training. The largest reserves are to be found in raising the level of reaction times and spatial orientation.


Study aim: This study aimed to examine the effect of carrying backpacks on neck posture and ground reaction forces (GRFs) and to investigate the relationship between neck angles and GRFs during backpack carriage in schoolchildren.

Material and methods: The craniohorizontal angle (CHA), craniovertebral angle (CVA), sagittal shoulder posture (SSP) and GRFs were measured in right-handed schoolchildren (14 male and 12 female) with mean age 10.17 ± 1.15 years during loaded and unloading conditions. The Qualisys motion analysis system with a force plate was used to assess the neck angles and GRFs.

Results: During backpack carriage there was a significant increase in the CHA (p = 0.001), significant decrease in the CVA and SSP (p = 0.001, 0.016 respectively), no significant difference in the normalized (scaled to body weight) vertical GRFs (p > 0.05), and a significant increase in the anterior braking and posterior propulsive GRFs (p = 0.035, 0.002 respectively) compared to the unloading condition. While carrying a backpack there was a moderate negative correlation between the SSP and first vertical GRF (r = –0.464) and a strong negative correlation with the second vertical GRF (r = –0.571) and the posterior propulsive GRF (r = –0.587).

Conclusion: Carrying a backpack weighing 15% of the child’s body weight changes the head posture and increases the normalized value of the anterior-posterior shear force. During backpack carriage, decreasing the SSP is associated with increasing the load acceptance, thrusting and posterior propulsive forces. Increasing the shearing force may lead to development of postural abnormities. Consequently, the ideal backpack weight should be considered by parents and teachers.


Study aim: The body structure can play a determining role in the achievement of top judo performance, and it seems to influence the type of techniques applied. The aim of this study is to determine the somatotypes in male and female national level judokas across weight categories in order to observe possible differences among athletes.

Material and methods: A total of 61 male judokas (23.2 ± 2.7 years old) and 37 female judokas (22.3 ± 3.3 years old) participated in this study. Anthropometric variables were used to calculate somatotypes. Somatotypes were determined according to the Heath-Carter method. Analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc test were used to determine differences between weight categories and obtained effect sizes (η2) were presented as well.

Results: Somatotype differences among weight categories in male and female judokas were observed. Generally, all categories could be classified in three somatotypes in male and female athletes.

Conclusions: The lightest categories were recognized as mesomorphic ectomorphs in females with an exception in the –48 kg category, and ectomorphic mesomorphs in male athletes. The middle ones had the endomorphic mesomorph somatotype and the heaviest athletes presented somewhat more extreme cases of endomorphic mesomorphs, both in male and female judokas. According to the results obtained, judokas have a specific body composition in different weight categories. Therefore, coaches could create a specific training programme for athletes who belong to different somatotypes.


Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether our own twelve-week Sensorimotor Exercise Programme (SEP) affected FMS results in canoe slalom athletes. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool for detecting asymmetries and movement range limitations in order to prevent sport injuries. The screen evaluates mobility and stability in seven fundamental movement patterns.

Material and methods: The study population consisted of 16 athletes from the Canoe Slalom National Team of Poland who competed in three sports categories: kayak single, canoe single, canoe double. The athletes, 13 men and 3 women, undertook the FMS screen twice before the starting season. Between the first and the second screen the athletes undertook a twelve-week long sensorimotor training programme.

Results: The result analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FMS results. The mean FMS screen result after twelve weeks of training increased from 16.6 points to 19.6 points.

Conclusions: An adequately designed SEP can lead to an improvement in athlete movement patterns. The FMS screen allows for assessment of changes in athlete movement patterns after twelve weeks of SEP training.


Acrylates are plastic materials formed by the polymerization of monomers, which are recognized as powerful sensitizers that may cause allergic contact dermatitis both in occupational and non-occupational environment. In the occupational setting, the most exposed workers are the dentists, dental technicians, prosthesis technicians, printers, painters, fiberglass workers and nail technicians. We describe four cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in nail technicians caused by acrylic compounds that illustrate numerous clinical manifestations. Clinical manifestations ranged from edema, erythema, scaling and fissuring fingertips to erythematous patches around the chin, mandible and abdomen. Patch testing results revealed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in all patients. Of the four patients, two changed jobs, one stopped exposure because of pregnancy and one patient continued working, showing no improvement, despite undergoing treatment. These cases underline the importance of improvement of preventive measures in the workplace.


Vascular-ventricular coupling is a major determinant of left ventricular load. The aim of our study was to assess non- invasively left ventricular load and its dependency on central hemodynamics. Sixty-five healthy and gender-matched individuals were divided in two groups according to their age: 20y/o and 50y/o. Applanation tonometry was performed using the Sphygmocor device. Central pressures and pulse wave analysis indices were computed. Central systolic (120±3 vs. 98±2 mm Hg) and pulse pressures (43±3 vs. 29±1 mm Hg) as well as the augmentation index (AIx75) (23±3 vs. 6±2%) were significantly higher in the 50y/o group (p<0.01). These parameters are relevant markers of arterial stiffness and evidenced the development of central arterial morphological and functional alterations in the older subjects. The time-tension index (TTI) computed from the systolic pressure area was significantly higher in the 50y/o subjects as compared to the 20y/o group (2378±66 vs. 1954±73 mmHg×s, p<0.01). Moreover, we have shown the presence of significant correlation between TTI and AIx75 (p<0.01) in both age groups. This finding confirmed the contribution of arterial stiffness for the impaired vascular-ventricular coupling. In conclusion, applanation tonometry might be utilized for non-invasive evaluation of the left ventricular load, which is an important parameter of cardiovascular risk.


Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th gestational week (GW). It is a significant cause of maternal and fetal perinatal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. There is increasing evidence suggesting that PE is due to an impaired balance between maternal placental angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors that harm maternal vascular endothelium. The study aimed to assess the clinical and financial aspects of introducing into practice the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) to placental growth factor (PlGF) ratio test to improve the management of preeclampsia and adverse pregnancy outcome, intrauterine growth retardation, iatrogenic prematurity, and placental abruption.

We report a case study in which we used the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in the management of a high-risk pregnancy. Unnecessary hospitalization was avoided, and the patient was managed appropriately.