Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) / folliculitis keloidalis nuchae (FKN) is a chronic inflammatory condition which involves hair follicles localized predominantly in occipital scalp and posterior neck area leading to hypertrophic scarring alopecia. We present a 59-year-old factory worker, Caucasian male with a whitish alopecic oval plaque about 10 cm in diameter in the occipital region. The peripheral part of plaque was mildly inflammated, with groups of tufted terminal hairs, while the central part showed cicatricial alopecia and discrete non-adherent dry scales. Skin changes firstly occurred 6 years earlier, as itchy papules and pustules that sometimes healed with scarring. The applied relevant diagnostic and therapeutical measures are discussed in this report.
Acne necrotica is a rare disease, characterized by repeated cropping of inflammatory papules and papulo-pustules, which rapidly necrotize and leave varying degrees of varioliform scars that may lead to cicatricial alopecia when terminal hair-bearing sites are involved. In early lesions, pathology shows necrotizing lymphocytic folliculitis. We report a 63-year-old male patient with chronic, relapsing, umbilicated and centrally necrotic erythematous papules and papulo-pustules involving the frontal hairline area, face, and neck. Histopathology showed epidermal spongiosis and lymphocytic exocytosis, extensive necrosis and destruction of the follicular epithelium, a dense diffuse lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and necrosis of the perifolicular dermis. The diagnosis of acne necrotica was made based on the correlation of clinical and histopathological findings. A complete clinical remission was achieved with topical erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide.
Introduction. Leprosy is a disease that predominantly affects the skin and peripheral nerves, resulting in neuropathy and associated long-term consequences, including deformities and disabilities. According to the WHO classification, there are two categories of leprosy, paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB). The standard treatment for leprosy employs the use of WHO MDT (Multi Drug Treatment) regimen, despite its multiple downsides such as clofazimine-induced pigmentation, dapsone-induced haematological adverse effects, poor compliance due to long therapy duration, drug resistance, and relapse. Multiple studies and case reports using ROM regimen have reported satisfactory results. Nevertheless, there are still insufficient data to elucidate the optimum dosage and duration of ROM regimen as an alternative treatment for leprosy. Previous experience from our institution revealed that ROM regimen given three times weekly resulted in a satisfactory outcome.
Case Reports. We report two cases of leprosy treated with ROM regimen from our institution. The first case was PB leprosy in a 64-year-old male who presented with a single scaly plaque with erythematous edge on the right popliteal fossa. Sensibility examination showed hypoesthesia with no peripheral nerve enlargement. Histopathological examination confirmed Borderline Tuberculoid leprosy. ROM regimen was started three times weekly for 6 weeks and the patient showed significant clinical improvement at the end of the treatment with no reaction or relapse until after 6 months after treatment. The second case was MB leprosy in a 24-year-old male patient with clawed hand on the 3rd-5th phalanges of the right hand and a hypoesthetic erythematous plaque on the forehead. Histopathology examination confirmed Borderline leprosy. The patients received ROM therapy 3 times a week with significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks.
Conclusion. ROM regimen given three times weekly for 6 weeks in PB leprosy and 12 weeks in MB leprosy resulted in a significant clinical improvement. Thus, ROM regimen could be a more effective, safer, faster alternative treatment for leprosy.
The balloon cell nevus is a rare and unusual benign melanocytic lesion characterized histologically by complete or predominant presence of balloon-cell transformed melanocytes. They represent approximately 1.7% of all melanocytic nevi. Three female patients, aged 30, 14 and 7 years, with lesions located on the back and head are included in the presented report. The dermoscopic examination revealed the repetitive dermoscopic features in all three patients: white and yellowish aggregated globules. In conclusion, balloon cell nevi are clinically indistinguishable from the common nevi. Dermoscopy can be useful in their recognition since balloon cell nevi exhibit some distinct dermoscopic features in a form of aggregated white and/or yellow globules.
Leprosy is a disease that is caused by Mycobacterium leprae which results in lots of disabilities in the patients. Leprosy is treated by multi-drug therapy regimen; however, this therapy might cause leprosy reactions in the patients. There are several types of lepromatous reaction: type 1 reaction, type 2 reaction and neuritis. Type 1 reaction mainly occurs in BB, BL and BT forms of leprosy and is characterized by exacerbation of preexisting lesions. The therapy of this reaction according to the WHO guideline is corticosteroid therapy. This article will explain several key points related to the corticosteroid therapy in leprosy reversal reactions, including the side effects and alternative therapies available.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a lower genital tract infection of reproductive women which can occur in pregnant and non-pregnant women. BV in pregnant women can increase the risk of complications, including increased incidence of abortion, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, and babies with low birth weight. BV can also increase the risk of acquired sexually transmitted infection (STI) and their further transmission, including human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV). Each country has a different prevalence of BV. The previous report of BV prevalence in pregnant women was submitted in Jakarta, Indonesia in 1990. Until now, there is no update data of BV in pregnant women, especially in West Java, Indonesia. Thus, we conducted a descriptive observational study using a cross-sectional design and a consecutive sampling method in June 2018. This study included 60 pregnant women in the Maternal and Child Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. Out of 60 participants, seven (11.67%) participants had BV according to Amsel criteria. Asymptomatic BV was diagnosed in all participants. This study shows the prevalence of BV in pregnant women in the Maternal and Child Hospital in Bandung during June 2018. The assessment of screening BV should be recommended as a routine workup. To avoid complications in pregnant women and infants it should not be waited for the symptoms to reveal.
Melanoma rarely develops in the genital area. It is responsible for 5% of all vulvar malignancies. Postmenopausal women are usually more affected and the main differential diagnosis is vulvar melanosis and vulvar nevi. There are limited numbers of studies on dermoscopic features of mucosal melanoma, particularly early-stage lesions. Dermoscopic criteria have been described for the diagnosis of vulvar melanosis, and observational studies have been conducted to define the dermoscopic features of nevi and melanoma on the vulva. We are presenting the case of a 69-year old female with suspected recurrence of vulvar melanoma who previously had surgical removal of mucosal lentiginous melanoma on the left labia minor in June 2017. Five months after the primary melanoma surgery, the patient noticed de novo pigmentation at the left and right labia minor and urethral opening. On clinical examination, irregular light-brown pigmentation with ill-defined borders was evident on the labia minora of the vulva and around the external urethral orifice. On dermoscopy, irregular pigmented network, with white scar-like and structureless pinkish areas was evident. Incisional biopsy of the vulvar mucosa revealed melanoma in situ, confirming the local recurrence. CT scans of the head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis and gynaecological examination revealed no secondary deposits. Ultrasound of the regional inguinal lymph nodes revealed enlarged suspected pathologic involvement of the lymph nodes in both inguinal regions. Lymph node fine needle aspiration of lymph nodes in the left and right inguinal area revealed pleomorphic infiltrate of lymphoid cells with hemosiderin or melanoma pigment in the cytoplasm. Cystoscopic findings were within normal range. Interdisciplinary tumour board indicated wide excision of melanoma with margins of 1 cm and resection of the urethra, as well as biopsy of the enlarged left inguinal lymph node. Histopathological analysis of the resected mucosa revealed lentiginous spread of melanocytes showing moderate atypia, with focal pagetoid spread, without mitoses and ulceration and without invasion of lamina propria. The resection margins were tumour-free. Non-specific lymphadenitis was diagnosed on lymph node histopathological analysis. The patient was regularly monitored by a dermatologist and urologist, and had no recurrence. The accurate and prompt diagnosis is essential in the case of the vulvar melanoma which has unfavourable and unpredictable prognosis, with a tendency of local recurrences and regional and distant metastases in the case of invasive melanoma. In order not to miss early mucosal melanoma, dermatologists and gynaecologists should not avoid biopsy of lesions that demonstrate any clinical or dermoscopic feature of atypical melanocytic lesion, especially in case of the development of irregular pigmentation that expands and changes over time, the appearance of a solitary amelanotic papule or nodule requires excision or, in case of large diameter lesions, incision biopsies. Larger studies are needed to define more rigorously clinical and dermoscopic criteria that accurately distinguish early mucosal melanomas from benign skin lesions.
Introduction. Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum spirochete and is mainly transmitted by sexual contact. Syphilis has the potential to cause serious complications and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection thus making syphilis still a major public health problem. In Indonesia, surveys of high-risk populations in 2007 and 2011 reported an increase in the prevalence of syphilis, especially in men who have sexual relationships with other men (MSM). Moreover, studies have described risk factors for HIV transmission including MSM, heterosexual contacts, Intravenous (IV) drug use, and infected partners.
Objectives. To assess the epidemiological aspects and risk factors for syphilis in Makassar, as well as the correlation with a coinfection of other sexually transmitted infections.
Material and Methods. This study is a multi-centre cross-sectional descriptive study with consecutive sampling. We evaluated cases for eligibility by confirming the diagnosis based on the serological result using rapid plasma reagin assay (RPR), Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA), and HIV screening kit. The cases were analyzed based on epidemiological features, risk factors and clinical findings, co-infection with other sexually transmitted infection (ST), and stadium of the disease.
Results. A total of 79 serologically confirmed syphilis cases were collected between January 2017 and December 2018 in Makassar, the capital city of South Sulawesi province in Indonesia. Of the 63 male subjects (79.7%), 38 (48.1%) were homosexual/MSM, and in 41 cases of HIV-infected subjects, 25 (60.9%) of them were also MSM.
Conclusion. Our study showed there was a significant correlation between syphilis and an increased risk of HIV transmission in MSM groups. The higher number of cases of syphilis and HIV co-infection among MSM can increase transmission of both infections and should be considered a major risk factor for syphilis in Makassar.
Unilateral mediothoracic exanthem is a variant of a common entity in Western literature, namely Asymmetric Periflexural Exanthem of Childhood (APEC). Less than ten cases of unilateral mediothoracic exanthem have been described worldwide, and only two are reported in Indian literature. Herein, we report two childhood cases of uni-lateral mediothoracic exanthem from India. Dermatologists must be aware of this self-limiting condition, in order to avoid invasive and exhaustive investigations and misdiagnosis.