Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a known, but a rare cause of out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). It results in the development of non-shockable rhythms such as asystole or pulseless electrical activity (PEA).
A 77- years old male had an OHCA without any prodrome. An emergency medical services (EMS) team responded to an emergency call and intubated the patient at the site before transporting him to the Acute Care Hospital, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. On admission, a non-contrast computed tomography scan of the head revealed a large cerebellar haemorrhage. Non-traumatic ICH is a rare cause of OHCA. Although subarachnoid haemorrhage causing cardiac arrest has been described in the literature, cerebellar haemorrhage leading to cardiac arrest is rare. The mechanism by which ICH patients develop cardiac arrest is likely explained by a massive catecholamine surge leading to cardiac stunning.
A non-shockable rhythm in the seting of a sudden cardiac arrest should raise alarms for a primary non-cardiac ethology, especially a primary cerebrovascular event. The absence of brainstem reflexes increases the likelihood of an intracranial process.
To evaluate the kinetics of inflammatory biomarkers in septic patients in order to identify the most reliable predictor of unfavorable outcome.
A prospective analysis of septic patients was performed. Median levels of neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were dynamically assessed and comparatively analyzed.
Seventy-seven patients were included. Descendent kinetic patterns were registered for all biomarkers, except C-reactive protein. At 24 hours, neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio significantly decreased in 42.85% of cases, procalcitonin in 37.33%, C-reactive protein in 16.12% and fibrinogen in 1.58% of cases. At 72 hours, procalcitonin decreased to one-half in 70% of cases and neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio in 67.53% of cases.
Neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio and procalcitonin significantly decreased in the first 72 hours, while C-reactive protein increased in the first 24 hours. The proportions of patients with major decrease of baseline values were higher for neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio and procalcitonin.
There are rare reports of the occurrence of acute transverse myelitis and Guillain–Barré syndrome after various surgical procedures and general/epidural anaesthesia. The concomitant occurrence of these pathologies is very rare and is called Guillain–Barré and acute transverse myelitis overlap syndrome. In this article, we present the case of a second trimester pregnant patient who developed Guillain–Barré and acute transverse myelitis overlap syndrome.
We report the case of a 16-year-old female patient who underwent a therapeutic termination of pregnancy two weeks prior to the onset of the disease with gradual development of a motor deficit with walking and sensitivity disorders, fecal incontinence. The diagnosis was based on clinical exam, electroneurography and spinal magnetic resonance imaging. Endocrinopathies, infectious diseases, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, neoplastic diseases and vitamin deficiencies were ruled out. Our patient attended five sessions of therapeutic plasma exchange, followed by steroid treatment, intravenous immunoglobulin with minimum recovery of the motor deficit in the upper limbs, but without significant evolution of the motor deficit in the lower limbs. The patient was discharged on maintenance corticotherapy and immunosuppressive treatment with azathioprine.
We report a very rare association between Guillain–Barré syndrome and acute transverse myelitis triggered by a surgical intervention with general anaesthesia. The overlap of Guillain–Barré syndrome and acute transverse myelitis makes the prognosis for recovery worse, and further studies are needed to establish the first-line therapy in these cases.
Gastrointestinal dysfunction (GDF) is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Intensive care interventions, such as intravenous fluids and enteral feeding, can exacerbate GDF. There exists a paucity of high-quality literature on the interaction between these two modalities (intravenous fluids and enteral feeding) as a combined therapy on its impact on GDF.
To review the impact of intravenous fluids and enteral nutrition individually on determinants of gut function and implications in clinical practice.
Randomized controlled trials on intravenous fluids and enteral feeding on GDF were identified by a comprehensive database search of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Extraction of data was conducted for study characteristics, provision of fluids or feeding in both groups and quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the impact of these interventions across the spectrum of GDF severity.
Restricted/ goal-directed intravenous fluid therapy is likely to reduce ‘mild’ GDF such as vomiting (p = 0.03) compared to a standard/ liberal intravenous fluid regime. Enterally fed patients experienced increased episodes of vomiting (p = <0.01) but were less likely to develop an anastomotic leak (p = 0.03) and peritonitis (p = 0.03) compared to parenterally fed patients. Vomiting (p = <0.01) and anastomotic leak (p = 0.04) were significantly lower in the early enteral feeding group.
There is less emphasis on the combined approach of intravenous fluid resuscitation and enteral feeding in critically ill patients. Conservative fluid resuscitation and aggressive enteral feeding are presumably key factors contributing to severe life-threatening GDF. Future trials should evaluate the impact of cross-interaction between conservative and aggressive modes of these two interventions on the severity of GDF.
Recovered Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (rOHCA) population is heterogenous. Few studies focused on outcomes in the rOHCA subgroup with proven significant coronary artery disease (SigCAD). We aimed to characterize this subgroup and study the determinants of in-hospital mortality.
Retrospective study of consecutive rOHCA patients submitted to coronary angiography. Only patients with SigCAD were included.
60 patients were studied, 85% were male, mean age was 62.6 ± 12.1 years. In-hospital mortality rate was 43.3%. Patients with diabetes and history of stroke were less likely to survive. Significant univariate predictors of in-hospital mortality were further analysed separately, according to whether they were present at hospital admission or developed during hospital evolution. At hospital admission, initial non-shockable rhythm, low-flow time>12min, pH<7.25mmol/L and lactates >4.75mmol/L were the most relevant predictors and therefore included in a score tested by Kaplan-Meyer. Patients who had 0/4 criteria had 100% chance of survival till hospital discharge, 1/4 had 77%, 2/4 had 50%, 3/4 had 25%. Patients with all 4 criteria had 0% survival. During in-hospital evolution, a pH<7.35 at 24h, lactates>2mmol/L at 24h, anoxic brain injury and persistent hemodynamic instability proved significant. Patients who had 0/4 of these in-hospital criteria had 100% chance of survival till hospital discharge, 1/4 had 94%, 2/4 had 47%, 3/4 had 25%. Patients with all 4 criteria had 0% survival. Contrarily, CAD severity and ventricular dysfunction didn’t significantly correlate to the outcome.
Classic prehospital variables retain their value in predicting mortality in the specific group of OHCA with SigCAD. In-hospital evolution variables proved to add value in mortality prediction. Combining these simple variables in risk scores might help refining prognostic prediction in these patients’s subset.
Hypernatremia is a commonly associated electrolyte disturbance in sepsis and septic shock patients in the ICU. The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic value of hypernatremia in sepsis and septic shock
Material and Methods
A prospective study conducted on sepsis and septic shock patients diagnosed prior to admission in the ICU in King Hamad University Hospital, Bahrain from January 1st 2017 to February 28th 2019. Data including age, sex, comorbidities, source of sepsis, sodium levels on days one, three, and seven. Data was correlated with the outcome (survival/death and the length of ICU stay).
Patients included were 168, 110 survived, and 58 died. Hypernatraemia at day seven was associated with significantly higher mortality (P= 0.03). Hypernatraemia at Day1was associated with a significantly prolonged stay in the ICU (p= 0.039).Multivariate analysis to identify the independent predictors of mortality revealed that immunosuppression and hypernatraemia at Day7 proved to be independent predictors of mortality (P= 0.026 and 0.039 respectively).
Hypernatremia can be an independent predictor of poor outcome in septic and septic shock patients in the ICU.
The patient in critical condition, regardless of the cause of admission, continues to be a challenge for health systems due to the high mortality that it reports. There is a need to identify some marker of early obtaining, easy to interpret and with high relevance in the prognosis of these patients.
To determine the prognostic value of serum lactate in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU).
One hundred and forty-five patients admitted to an ICU were enrolled in the study. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE) prognosis score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, hemodynamic support need, mechanical ventilation, cause of admission, stay in ICU, analytical and physiological variables were determined. The probability of survival of patients who had elevated and normal serum lactate levels was calculated. The risk of dying was determined using the Cox regression model.
Twenty-eight patients died (19%) in the ICU. The serum lactate value was higher in the group of patients with trauma, infections, APACHE II and high creatinine levels; as well as with decreased mean arterial blood pressure, need for hemodynamic support and mechanical ventilation. The survival capacity was higher in patients who had normal serum lactate. Serum lactate was the sole independent predictor of mortality (AHR 1.28 [1.07-1.53], p = 0.008).
Patient assessment through the determination of serum lactate levels provides useful information in the initial evaluation of the critical patient.
In Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), the heterogeneity of lung lesions results in a mis-match between ventilation and perfusion, leading to the development of hypoxia. The study aimed to examine the association between computed tomographic (CT scan) lung findings in patients with ARDS after abdominal surgery and improved hypoxia and mortality after prone ventilation.
Material and Methods
A single site, retrospective observational study was performed at the Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, between 1st January 2004 and 31st October 2018. Patients were allocated to one of two groups after CT scanning according to the presence of ground-glass opacity (GGO) or alveolar shadow with predominantly dorsal lung atelectasis (DLA) on lung CT scan images. Also, Patients were divided into a prone ventilation group and a supine ventilation group when the treatment for ARDS was started.
We analyzed data for fifty-one patients with ARDS following abdominal surgery. CT scans confirmed GGO in five patients in the Group A and in nine patients in the Group B, and DLA in 17 patients in the Group A and nine patients in the Group B. Both GGO and DLA were present in two patients in the Group A and nine patients in the Group B. Prone ventilation significantly improved patients’ impaired ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen from 12 h after prone positioning compared with that in the supine position. Weaning from mechanical ventilation occurred significantly earlier in the Group A with DLA vs the Group B with DLA (P < 0.001). Twenty-eight-day mortality was significantly lower for the Group A with DLA vs the Group B with DLA (P = 0.035).
These results suggest that prone ventilation could be effective for treating patients with ARDS as showing the DLA.