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Abstract

Background

Management of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is affected by regional specificities. The present study aimed at determining diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including outcome of patients with NSCLC stage III in the real-world setting in Central European countries to define areas for improvements.

Patients and methods

This multicentre, prospective and non-interventional study collected data of patients with NSCLC stage III in a web-based registry and analysed them centrally.

Results

Between March 2014 and March 2017, patients (n=583) with the following characteristics were entered: 32% females, 7% never-smokers; ECOG performance status (PS) 0, 1, 2 and 3 in 25%, 58%, 12% and 5%, respectively; 21% prior weight loss; 53% squamous carcinoma, 38% adenocarcinoma; 10% EGFR mutations. Staging procedures included chest X-ray (97% of patients), chest CT (96%), PET-CT (27%), brain imaging (20%), bronchoscopy (89%), endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) (13%) and CT-guided biopsy (9%). Stages IIIA/IIIB were diagnosed in 55%/45% of patients, respectively. N2/N3 nodes were diagnosed in 60%/23% and pathologically confirmed in 29% of patients. Most patients (56%) were treated by combined modalities. Surgery plus chemotherapy was administered to 20%, definitive chemoradiotherapy to 34%, chemotherapy only to 26%, radiotherapy only to 12% and best supportive care (BSC) to 5% of patients. Median survival and progression-free survival times were 16.8 (15.3;18.5) and 11.2 (10.2;12.2) months, respectively. Stage IIIA, female gender, no weight loss, pathological mediastinal lymph node verification, surgery and combined modality therapy were associated with longer survival.

Conclusions

The real-world study demonstrated a broad heterogeneity in the management o f stage III NSCLC in Central European countries and suggested to increase the rates of PET-CT imaging, brain imaging and invasive mediastinal staging.

Abstract

Background

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer in the world. Metastatic disease is still incurable in most of these patients, but the survival rate has improved by treatment with novel systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy in combination with surgery. New knowledge of its complex heterogeneity in terms of genetics, epigenetics, transcriptomics and microenvironment, including prognostic and clinical characteristics, led to its classification into various molecular subtypes of metastatic CRC, called consensus molecular subtypes (CMS). The CMS classification thus enables the medical oncologists to adjust the treatment from case to case. They can determine which type of systemic chemotherapy or targeted therapy is best suited to a specific patient, what dosages are needed and in what order.

Conclusions

CMS in metastatic CRC are the new tool to include the knowledge of molecular factors, tumour stroma and signalling pathways for personalized, patient-orientated systemic treatment in precision medicine.

Abstract

Background

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a common and potentially fatal opportunistic infection in immunocompromised non-HIV individuals. There are problems with clinical and diagnostic protocols for PCP that lack sensitivity and specificity. We designed a retrospective study to compared several methods that were used in diagnostics of PCP.

Patients and methods

One hundred and eight immunocompromised individuals with typical clinical picture for PCP and suspicious radiological findings were included in the study. Serum samples were taken to measure the values of (1→3)-β-D-glucan (Fungitell, Associates of Cape Cod, USA). Lower respiratory tract samples were obtained to perform direct immunofluorescence (DIF, MERIFLUOR® Pneumocystis, Meridian, USA) stain and real-time PCR (qPCR).

Results

Fifty-four (50%) of the 108 patients in our study had (1→3)-β-D-glucan > 500 pg/ml. Patients that had (1→3)-β-D-glucan concentrations < 400 pg/ml in serum, had mean threshold cycles (Ct) 35.43 ± 3.32 versus those that had (1→3)-β-D-glucan concentrations >400 pg/mL and mean Ct of 28.97 ± 5.27 (P < 0.001). If we detected P. jirovecii with DIF and qPCR than PCP was proven. If the concentration of (1→3)-β-D-glucan was higher than 400 pg/ml and Ct of qPCR was below 28.97 ± 5.27 than we have been able be certain that P. jirovecii caused pneumonia (odds ratio [OR] 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62–3.27, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Measurement of (1→3)-β-D-glucan or qPCR alone could not be used to diagnose PCP. Diagnostic cut-off value for (1→3)-β-D-glucan > 400pg/ml and qPCR below 30 Ct, allow us to conclude that patient has PCP. If the values of (1→3)-β-D-glucan are < 400 pg/ml and qPCR is above 35 Ct than colonization with P. jirovecii is more possible than PCP.

Abstract

Background

The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of surgery of Slovenian breast cancer screening program (DORA) using the requested EU standards. Furthermore, we investigated whether regular quality control over the 3-year period improved the quality of surgical management.

Patients and methods

Patients who required surgical management within DORA between January 1st, 2016 and December 31st, 2018 were included in the retrospective study. Quality indicators (QIs) were adjusted mainly according to European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists (EUSOMA) and European Breast Cancer Network (EBCN) recommendations. Five QIs for therapeutic and two for diagnostic surgeries were selected. Additionally, variability in achieving the requested QIs among surgeons was analysed.

Results

Between 2016 and 2018, 14 surgeons performed 1421 breast procedures in 1398 women. There were 1197 therapeutical (for proven breast cancer) and 224 diagnostic surgical interventions respectively. Overall, the minimal standard was met in two QIs for therapeutic and none for diagnostic procedures. A statistically significant improvement in three QIs for therapeutic and in one QI for diagnostic procedures was observed however, indicating that regular quality control improves the quality of surgery. A high variability in achieving the requested QIs was observed among surgeons, which remained high throughout the study period.

Conclusions

Adherence to all selected surgical QIs in patients from screening program is difficult to achieve, especially to those specifically defined for screen-detected lesions. Regular quality control may improve results over time. Reducing the number of surgeons dedicated to breast pathology may reduce variability of management inside the institution.

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to assess the primary efficacy of robot-assisted microwave ablation and compare it to manually guided microwave ablation for percutaneous ablation of liver malignancies.

Patients and methods

We performed a retrospective single center evaluation of microwave ablations of 368 liver tumors in 192 patients (36 female, 156 male, mean age 63 years). One hundred and nineteen ablations were performed between 08/2011 and 03/2014 with manual guidance, whereas 249 ablations were performed between 04/2014 and 11/2018 using robotic guidance. A 6-week follow-up (ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) was performed on all patients.

Results

The primary technique efficacy outcome of the group treated by robotic guidance was significantly higher than that of the manually guided group (88% vs. 76%; p = 0.013). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that a small tumor size (≤ 3 cm) and robotic guidance were significant favorable prognostic factors for complete ablation.

Conclusions

In addition to a small tumor size, robotic navigation was a major positive prognostic factor for primary technique efficacy.

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) v2018 for combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA) identifying the features that allow an accurate characterization.

Patients and methods

Sixty-two patients (median age, 63 years; range, 38–80 years), with pre-surgical biopsy diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that underwent hepatic resection, comprised our retrospective study. All patients were subject to multidetector computed tomography (MDCT); 23 patients underwent to magnetic resonance (MR) study. The radiologist reported the presence of the HCC by using LIRADS v2018 assessing major and ancillary features.

Results

Final histological diagnosis was HCC for 51 patients and cHCC-CCA for 11 patients. The median nodule size was 46.0 mm (range 10–190 mm). For cHCC-CCA the median size was 33.5 mm (range 20–80 mm), for true HCC the median size was 47.5 mm (range 10–190 mm). According to LIRADS categories: 54 (87.1%) nodules as defined as LR-5, 1 (1.6%) as LR-3, and 7 (11.3%) as LR-M. Thirty-nine nodules (63%) showed hyper-enhancement in arterial phase; among them 4 were cHCC-CCA (36.4% of cHCC-CCA) and 35 (68.6%) true HCC. Forty-three nodules (69.3%) showed washout appearance; 6 cHCC-CCAs (54.5% of cHCC-CCA) and 37 true HCC (72.5%) had this feature. Only two cHCC-CCA patients (18.2% of cHCC-CCA) showed capsule appearance. Five cHCC-CCA (71.4% of cHCC-CCA) showed hyperintensity on T2-W sequences while two (28.6%) showed inhomogeneous signal in T2-W. All cHCC-CCA showed restricted diffusion. Seven cHCC-CCA patients showed a progressive contrast enhancement and satellite nodules.

Conclusions

The presence of satellite nodules, hyperintense signal on T2-W, restricted diffusion, the absence of capsule appearance in nodule that shows peripheral and progressive contrast enhancement are suggestive features of cHCC-CCA.

Abstract

Background

We assessed the prevalence, localization, type and outcome of occult cancer at risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy or salpingectomy (RRSO) in asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic or likely pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants and high-risk BRCA1/2 negative women.

Patients and methods

A retrospective analysis of all consecutive gynaecologic preventive surgeries from January 2009 to December 2015 was performed. Participants underwent genetic counselling and BRCA1/2 testing before the procedure. Data on clinical parameters, adjuvant treatment and follow-up were collected and analysed.

Results

One hundred and fifty-five RRSO were performed in 110 BRCA1, 35 BRCA2 carriers of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants and 10 high-risk BRCA1/2 negative women, at the mean age of 48.3 years. Nine occult cancers (9/155, 5.8%) were identified; eight in BRCA1 positive women and one in high-risk BRCA1/2 negative woman. We identified four non-invasive serous intraepithelial tubal carcinomas (3 in BRCA1 carriers and 1 in a high-risk BRCA1/2 negative woman) and five invasive tubo-ovarian high grade serous cancers (all detected in BRCA1 carriers). Only one out of nine patients (11.1%) with occult cancer had a slightly elevated CA-125 value preoperatively.

Conclusions

A 5.8% prevalence of occult invasive and noninvasive tubo-ovarian serous cancer after RRSO was found in high risk asymptomatic and screen negative women. We conclude that RRSO should be performed in BRCA1/2 carriers and in high-risk BRCA1/2 negative women. Age of preventive gynaecologic surgery should be carefully planned, taking into account the completion of childbearing age and type of mutation. The results favour the tubal hypothesis of tubal origin of high grade serous ovarian and peritoneal cancer. Cytology result of peritoneal cavity washing was important for the decision making process in determining treatment. Cytology examination should be performed in all cases of RRSO. CA-125 assay did not prove to be an effective screening tool for early cancer detection in our patients.

Abstract

Background

According to the current pathological classification, lung adenocarcinoma includes histological subtypes with significantly different prognoses, which may require specific surgical approaches. The aim of the study was to assess the role of CT and PET parameters in stratifying patients with stage I adenocarcinoma according to prognosis.

Patients and methods

Fifty-eight patients with pathological stage I lung adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally-invasive adenocarcinoma were grouped as non-invasive adenocarcinoma. Other histotypes were referred as invasive adenocarcinoma. CT scan assessed parameters were: ground glass opacity (GGO) ratio, tumour disappearance rate (TDR) and consolidation diameter. The prognostic role of the following PET parameters was also assessed: standardized uptake value (SUV) max, SUVindex (SUVmax to liver SUVratio), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG).

Results

Seven patients had a non-invasive adenocarcinoma and 51 an invasive adenocarcinoma. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) for non-invasive and invasive adenocarcinoma were 100% and 100%, 70% and 91%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a significant difference in SUVmax, SUVindex, GGO ratio and TDR ratio values between non-invasive and invasive adenocarcinoma groups. Optimal SUVmax, SUVindex, GGO ratio and TDR cut-off ratios to predict invasive tumours were 2.6, 0.9, 40% and 56%, respectively. TLG, SUVmax, SUVindex significantly correlated with cancer specific survival.

Conclusions

CT and PET scan parameters may differentiate between non-invasive and invasive stage I adenocarcinomas. If these data are confirmed in larger series, surgical strategy may be selected on the basis of preoperative imaging.

Abstract

Background

Sorafenib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Its efficacy in randomised controlled trials was demonstrated in patients with well-preserved liver function and good functional status. In the real-world setting, treatment is often offered to patients outside these criteria. We therefore performed a single-centre real-world cohort study on the efficacy of sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Patients and methods

We identified all patients with hepatocellular carcinoma initiating treatment with sorafenib between January 2015 and January 2018. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) since starting sorafenib. Clinical and demographic variables associated with survival were studied.

Results

The median OS was 13.4 months (95% CI 8.2–18.6). Multivariable Cox’s regression identified worse ECOG performance status (HR 2.21; 95% CI 1.56–3.16; P < 0.0001), Child-Pugh class C (HR 52.4; 95% CI 3.20–859; P = 0.005) and absence of prior locoregional treatment (HR 2.30; 95% CI 1.37–3.86; P = 0.002) to be associated with increased mortality.

Conclusions

Careful selection of patients for treatment with sorafenib is of paramount importance to optimize outcomes.

Abstract

Background

Management of locally advanced colon cancer (LACC) is challenging. Surgery is the mainstay of the treatment, yet its outcomes remain unclear, especially in the setting of multivisceral resections. The aim of the study was to examine the outcomes of standard and multivisceral colectomy in patients with LACC.

Patients and methods

Patients demographics, clinical and perioperative data of patients operated within study period 2004–2018 were collected. LACC was defined as stage T4 colon cancer including tumor invasion either through the visceral peritoneum or to the adjacent organs/structures. Accordingly, either standard or multivisceral colectomy (SC and MVC) was performed.

Results

Two hundred and three patients underwent colectomy for LACC. Of those, 112 had SC (55.2%) and 91 (44.8%) had MVC. Severe morbidity and mortality rates were 5.9% and 2.5%, respectively. MVC was associated with an increased blood loss (200 ml vs. 100 ml, p = 0.01), blood transfusion (22% vs. 8.9%, p = 0.01), longer operative time (180 minutes vs. 140 minutes, p < 0.01) and postoperative hospital stay (11 days vs. 10 days, p < 0.01) compared with SC. The complication-associated parameters were similar. Male gender, presence of ≥ 3 comorbidities, tumor location in the left colon and perioperative blood transfusion were associated with complications in the univariable analysis. In the multivariable model, the presence of ≥ 3 comorbidities was the only independent predictor of complications.

Conclusions

Colectomy with or without multivisceral resection is a safe procedure in LACC. In experienced hands, the postoperative outcomes are similar for SC and MVC. Given the complexity of the latter, these procedures should be reserved to qualified expert centers.