Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis was diagnosed in a 6-year-old, indoor, neutered female domestic European shorthair cat. Marked pruritus located mainly on the head and neck was noticed in the cat and in this area the animal had developed alopecia, crusts, and plaques. Histologically, monomorphic mast cells were found in the superficial dermis and around the hair follicles. Mast cells were well differentiated, with central nuclei and granular cytoplasm, with metachromatic granules which stained positively with Toluidine blue stain. The animal was successfully treated with oclacitinib at a dose of 1 mg/kg, twice a day per os.
Since there is not enough data about milkability of the Jersey cows, the aim of this paper is to show basic milkability traits of this cattle breed depending on the parity and milk flow curve types. Cows had average daily production (DMY) of 22.23 kg, milk yield per milking (MYM) of 9.72 kg, and average and maximum milk flow about 1.66 and 2.49 kg/min, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that DMY and MYM of the cows in 4th parity was significantly (p---lt---0.05) higher comparing to cows in 1st and 3th parity. The duration of entirely milking is similar regarding the paritiesand only the cows in 3th and 4th differ significantly (p---lt---0.05). Regarding the effect of milk flow curve, the significant (p---lt---0.05) difference between unspecified and rectangular milk flow curve has been found for the average milk flow (AMF) and descending phase of the milk flow curve (TD). Cows with unspecified milk flow curve, have significantly (p---lt---0.05) lower AMF and longer TD compared to cows with rectangular curve. Cows with bimodal milk flow curve have significantly (p---lt---0.05) longer duration of the ascending phase compering to: unspecified, descending and rectangular. The results of this study have shown that Jersey cows have lower production and milk flow compared to other dairy cattle breeds. Nonetheless, they have uniform milkability traits, and a large representation of desirable milk flow curves which are associated with a beneficial effect on the udder health.
Subclinical mastitis is an asymptomatic udder infection distributed worldwide with enormous losses in the dairy industry. The study’s objective was to determine the presence of this pathological condition in small dairy farms in the R. of N. Macedonia and to identify the most common associated bacteria. Milk samples were obtained from 96 dairy cows (378 udder quarters) in seven dairy farms, in 3 consecutive samplings 24-72 hours apart. The samples were cultured on routine bacteriological growth media and incubated for 24-48 hours. The isolates were identified by AximaiD Plus MALDITOF MS Platform. Subclinical mastitis was found in 49 animals (51%) and 104 infected quarters (27%). The most frequent isolated bacteria on cow level were Streptococcus uberis (19.4%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (7.4%) and Staphylococcu ssimulans (7.4%). On quarter level, the most isolated pathogen was Streptococcus uberis (35.6%) followed by Staphylococcu shaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus (10.3% and 9.2% respectively). Subclinical mastitis was found to be highly present in the selected small dairy farms. The most prevalent bacteria identified in the dairy farms (Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase–negative staphylococci) indicate that poor management and udder health practices, inadequate milking procedures and lack of mastitis control strategies greatly contribute to occurrence and persistence of subclinical mastitis.
This paper evaluates possible relations between the clinical activity and the histopathological findings of the entire intestine in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To perform this study, hospital records of 64 dogs of different sex and breed diagnosed with IBD were evaluated. The results of this study did not show a statistically significant correlation between clinical activity and the histopathological assessment of dogs with IBD. Certain connections were found between diarrhea and lacteal dilation in duodenum, and hematochezia and villous epithelial injury in colon but no other associations were found between the rest of the lesions and symptoms.
Avian avulavirus type 1 (AAvV-1) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Even though belonging to a single serotype, there is great genetic variability between these viruses. On the basis of the available complete fusion (F) gene and whole genome sequences and using the genotype classification system, AAvV-1 viruses are divided in two major groups: class I and class II. Class I viruses are predominantly avirulent viruses and majority of the isolations come from waterfowl and domestic poultry from live bird markets in USA and China although isolations from wild birds are reported globally. In our study we used classical, molecular and phylogenetic tools to characterize an AAvV-1 isolated from a mute swan in Macedonia. Based on the complete F gene sequence, we have concluded that the virus designated as AAvV-1/mute swan/Macedonia/546/2012 (KP123431) belongs to the class I of AAvV-1 with an avirulent cleavage site motif 112ERQER*L117. The virus could not be assigned to any of the four currently existing subgenotypes (1a, 1b, 1c or 1d) of the single genotype 1 of class I viruses. Two distant viruses, isolated from goose in Alaska in 1991 and from goose in Ohio in 1987, shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity of the complete F gene with the isolate in our study: 92.7% and 92.8%, respectively. This is the first report of isolation of class I AAvV-1 in Southeastern Europe. The asymptomatic nature and the underreporting of sequences from the class I viruses impede the understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of this group of viruses.
This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of two types of cheese prepared from bovine whey: Urda and Ricotta. Cheeses were examined for chemical parameters and their amino acids profile was determined. The results revealed that the chemical composition of the observed whey cheeses was highly significantly different (p<0.01) from each other. The amounts of dry matter, fat, protein, lactose, ash and salt were higher in Ricotta compared with Urda cheese samples. On the other hand, Urda contained more moisture, fat on a dry matter basis and moisture on a fat-free basis (79.59%, 27.50%, 84.27% versus 69.82%, 21.02%, 74.56%, respectively). Especially higher yield, salt in moisture content and energy values were observed in Ricotta cheese (5.93%, 3.12%, 145.99Kcal/100g versus 4.39%, 2.40%, 108.97Kcal/100g; Ricotta and Urda, respectively). Whey cheeses are a particularly good source of amino acids containing approximately - Ricotta: leucine (1.60g/100g), lysine (1.17g/100g), phenylalanine (0.78g/100g) and followed by threonine (0.77g/100g), while Urda contained leucine (0.80g/100g), lysine (0.45g/100g), threonine (0.68g/100g) and phenylalanine (0.31g/100g). Both cheese varieties contained glutamic and aspartic acid as the predominant non-essential amino acids (Ricotta: 3.91g/100g and 1.68g/100g versus Urda: 1.65g/100g and 0.80g/100g, respectively). Generally, from a nutritional point of view, the investigated whey cheeses could be considered as cheeses with low salt and fat content, as well as cheeses particularly abundant in branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine). These results also emphasize their advantages as products that present a cost-effective way of dealing with whey as waste material.
A fast and sensitive HPLC method was validated in order to analyze doxycycline in plasma and milk of sheep and in plasma of rabbits. The samples were processed with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). After the centrifugation step, a supernatant containing extracted doxycycline and internal standard oxytetracycline was injected into the HPLC system with PDA detection. The method showed linearity in the range of 0.125 - 2.5 µg/mL for ovine plasma, 0.125 – 5.0 µg/mL for ovine milk, and 0.125 – 1 µg/mL for rabbit plasma. The inter-assay precision varied between 5.69 – 13.55 %. Values for intra-assay precision were between 0.62 – 8.67 %. Accuracy was higher than 90% in all of the tested concentrations in the three types of biological matrices. The mean extraction recovery was higher than 90 % for all matrices. In order to handle only with free drug concentrations, microfiltration of standard solutions with low (0.25mg/mL), medium (0.5mg/mL) and high (1.0mg/mL) concentration was performed. A percentage for correction of the quantified doxycycline was calculated. The most significant adjustments should be made at the low concentrations. The correction for rabbit plasma is 24.63±5.03%, for ovine plasma is 20.10±8.01% and for milk–16.68±0.04 %. This method can be used for routine determination of doxycycline concentrations for pharmacokinetic studies and further dosage adjustment.
The aim of the current study was to test the effect of a diet supplemented with dandelion’s (Taraxacum officinale) extract on the productive traits and blood parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) cultivated in an recirculation aquaculture system. The carps were cultivated at a stocking density of 7.2 kg/m3 in recirculation aquaculture system. The fish were split into the following two experimental groups: DF (the fish were fed with feed supplemented with dandelion’s extract) and CF (the fish were fed with feed without supplementation). Common carp fed with a diet added with dandelion’s extract at a quantity of 0.8% from daily feed ratio, did not affect the hydrochemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity). The carps fed with feed supplemented with dandelion’s extract did not show better productive traits compared with these found for carp from the control variant. The carp from experimental groups had a higher survival rate, final weight, average individual weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR), respectively with 13.2%, 3.94%, 31.5% and 31.3%, compared with the average values of these parameters measured in individuals fed with the control feed, but the differences were not statistically significant (P≥0.05). Supplementation of feed with dandelion’s extract significantly decreased the plasma cholesterol (4.76%) and triglyceride (61.2%) content, promoting hypolipidemic status in fish (P≤0.05).
Reduced glutathione (GSH) and homologous ram seminal plasma (HSP), used as additives in cryopreserving (CP) media prior to freezing, showed conflicting results in retaining structural integrity and progressive motility in post-thawed ram spermatozoa. The aims of this research were: (1) to assess the effect of GSH and/or HSP supplementation via soybean-lecithin CP extender on cryopreserved ram spermatozoa viability, morphology and motility pattern; and (2) to assess the effect of incubation in the context of the previous aim. Quantitatively and qualitatively, homogenized and pooled ram ejaculates (N=10) were extended with one of the following extenders: control (C) – tris-based, GSH and HSP-free, experimental-1 (E1) – C + GSH 5 mM, experimental-2 (E2) – C + HSP 20 % and experimental-3 (E3) - GSH 5 mM + HSP 20 %. Following thawing, samples were taken at 0- and 3-hours from each group (n=10) and were assessed for spermatozoa viability, morphology, and motility pattern. C-0h samples yielded a spermatozoa population with low viability, altered head morphology and highly deviated motility pattern. E3-3h samples yielded spermatozoa with unaffected viability, head morphology and high progressive motility. In conclusion, E3 extender added to cryopreserved-thawed ram spermatozoa is most efficient in obtaining high viability, unaltered head morphology, and progressive motility.
For the first time in Iraq, we identified in March, 2018 the presence of a highly virulent avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1 (Clade 220.127.116.11c), causing highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry farms, Iraq,. The identification of the virus was done using a rapid serological test, a real time-qPCR, and glycoprotein gene sequencing. Using sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, the clade 18.104.22.168c virus was recorded to be clustered, with high similarity to Asian and West African AIV, HPAI H5N1 from Ivory Coast identified in 2015. According to our knowledge, there was no previous detection of the clade 22.214.171.124c made in Iraq. Our results provide evidence that high risk of HPAI H5 outbreaks might be present in Iraq, and this needs to lead to high quality surveillance targeting of wild and domestic birds for early diagnosis of HPAI. The current work provides feasible and accurate approaches for understanding the evolution of HPAI H5 virus in different countries around the world.