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Abstract

Background

The arylidene indanone scaffold has contributed many lead molecules in chemotherapeutic anticancer agent research.

Objectives

To determine the oxidant-scavenging activities and antiproliferative activity of (2E)-2-benzylidene-4,7-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (MLT-401), an arylidene indanone derivative.

Methods

Jurkat cells, primary lymphocytes, and Vero cells were treated with MLT-401. Antioxidant properties of MLT-401 were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-based, 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS)-based, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assays. Inhibition of cell proliferation was determined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-based assay. Nuclear status was determined using a DNA fragmentation assay, and cell cycle stage was analyzed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane enzyme activities were measured using colorimetric methods.

Results

The antioxidant assays gave MLT-401 half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 1611 nM (DPPH-based assay), 2115 nM (ABTS-based assay), and 1586 nM (FRAP assay). MLT-401 inhibited proliferation of Jurkat cells with a concentration for 50% of maximal inhibition of cell proliferation (GI50) of 341.5 nM, being 12- and 9-fold less than GI50 concentrations for normal lymphocytes and Vero cells, respectively. MLT-401 caused nuclear fragmentation and DNA laddering as seen by electrophoresis. Jurkat cells showed a time-dependent accumulation of sub G0/G1 cells after MLT-401 treatment. Mitochondrial membrane-bound Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase, and Mg2+ ATPase activities were inhibited by MLT-401 in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion

MLT-401 possesses significant antiproliferative activity and scavenges free radicals released through mitochondrial membrane damage in a Jurkat cell line model of cancer cells. Further investigation of MLT-401 as a chemotherapeutic anticancer agent and development of other arylidene indanone analogues are warranted. A detailed elucidation of mechanistic pathways is required for further development.

Abstract

Background

Serum starvation is mostly considered as a standard preparatory method in many cellular and molecular experiments. However, recent studies give some evidence that serum starvation is a major event that triggers various cell responses and has therefore great potential to change and interfere with the experimental results. In this study, the behavior of breast cancer cells in serum-starved condition was examined.

Objective

To focus on the role of serum starvation on cell migration and also the possible changes in the expression and secretion of genes and cytokines mostly involved in migration and chemotaxis of breast cancer cells.

Methods

MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured under serum-starved condition. Transwell migration assay was performed to evaluate the effect of serum starvation on cell migration after 24, 48, and 72 h. The transcriptional expression of migration-related genes was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The cytokine secretion was also analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results

Serum starvation suppressed cell migration in breast cancer cells. Additionally, the gene expression of markers involved in migration including β-catenin, twist, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1, vimentin, fibronectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor were downregulated. Moreover, cytokines of transforming growth factor, beta 1, matrix metallopeptidase 9, interleukin 8, and nitric oxide were differentially secreted.

Conclusions

Serum deprivation causes significant changes in cancer cell migration and also the expression of migration-related genes and cytokines, special care needs to be taken when this practice is used as preparatory method especially in migration and chemotaxis experiments on cancer cells.

Abstract

Background

Multidrug-resistant bacteria are becoming more hazardous day by day for human health all over the world, and the scientific community is trying hard to resolve this issue by various approaches. One of the very common approaches is to bind drugs to nanoparticles and study enhanced antibacterial properties.

Objective

To compare simultaneously different types of nanoparticles, their concentration, bacterial strains and their incubation time intervals for each of the selected drug combination.

Methods

We have selected the most commonly used gold and silver nanoparticles and few examples from fluoroquinolone antibiotics to make their conjugates and study their efficacy against multidrug-resistant E. coli and S. aureus strains simultaneously, at different incubation time intervals and different concentration of nanoparticles.

Results

Gold nanoparticle hybrids do not show any significant effect. Silver nanoparticle hybrids show far better results, even at extremely low concentrations.

Conclusions

This unique and simple approach allows us to know the exact time intervals and concentration required for each nanoparticle combination to control the growth for any specific strain. This approach can be extended to any set of nanoparticles, drugs and bacterial strains for comparative purposes.

Abstract

Background

Simulation is widely used in airway management training.

Objectives

To show that assigning anesthesia residents’ simulation educator roles improved cognitive learning outcomes.

Methods

Postgraduate second- and third-year (PGY-2 and PGY-3) anesthesia residents were randomly assigned to three groups: a teacher group (T), a hot-seat (active participant) group (H), and an observer group (O). After a train-the-trainer session, the T group prepared simulation scenarios for difficult airway management and then conducted the simulation sessions and post-session debriefing. The H group participated in the scenarios, and the O group observed the sessions. All participants attended the post-session debriefing. Evaluation was conducted at pretest, immediate posttest, and 3 months (retention test). Score differentiation and average normalized gain were calculated. Participants completed a post-simulation class survey.

Results

Participants were 49 residents (PGY-2 = 24, PGY-3 = 25). The T group had the highest posttest score (17.06 ± 1.23); this score significantly differed from the O group (14.75 ± 2.57, P = 0.003) but not the H group (15.64 ± 1.54, P = 0.103). The average normalized gain was significantly higher in the T group than in the H and O groups (0.51 ± 0.22, 0.18 ± 0.32, and 0.17 ± 0.47, respectively; P = 0.012). Participants retained knowledge at 3 months after the session, with no significant differences among the groups. Most participants (45%) preferred to be active scenario participants, and 20% preferred to teach. Overall satisfaction was high in all groups.

Conclusion

This study showed that a teaching role can be effectively applied for residents in simulation-based education on difficult airway management to support better learning outcomes.

Abstract

Background

Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare condition during neonatal period.

Objective

To report a case of recipient twin with fulminant ALF secondary to hydrops fetalis caused by twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS).

Method

The patient was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and fulminant ALF with prolonged international normalized ratio (INR) and elevated liver enzymes with highest aspartate aminotransferase of 4,580 U/L.

Results

Laboratory investigation for secondary causes of liver failure was not revealing. Her liver enzymes and coagulation levels were dramatically normalized as the clinical symptoms of hypervolemia improved within 1 week.

Conclusion

TTTS can be a possible cause of neonatal ALF. Early detection with proper management of TTTS is important to avoid adverse outcomes. However, pathogenesis of hepatic dysfunction in TTTS is rarely described, and further studies are needed to help understanding the correlation between liver diseases and TTTS.

Abstract

Introduction. Shortage of nurses reported in the EU (European Union) among other causes is related to: non-attractive work conditions, lack of willingness to take up job as a nurse (despite their education), and high risk of professional burnout. Encouraging graduates to take up a job in the profession and remain is a challenge for employers and institutions involved in the problems of modern nursing. Teaching nurses how to: protect themselves from professional burnout, how to combine career ambitions, family needs and above all personal satisfaction is of utmost importance. Amongst possible solutions which enhance planning of career and personal development in a deliberate manner, as is the case in other professions, it may be worth considering the support of a coach.

Aim. Analysis of the professional situation of nurses in the context of need for individual development using the coaching method.

Method. A method of analysis and criticism of the literature was used.

Conclusions and results. Coaching gives an opportunity for conscious planning process of nurse professional development in synchrony with needs and expectations for personal, family and social life. Better stress management, maintaining work-life balance and professional burnout prevention are benefits provided by this approach.

Abstract

Introduction. The dynamic development of new technologies and the dissemination of mobile applications in everyday life create opportunities for using the new form for activities within the framework of women’s health education.

Aim. The work aims to review mobile applications that can be used in women’s health education in obstetrics and gynecology, and to determine their range of functions facilitating independent control of women’s health.

Material and method. The research of mobile applications was limited to the ones available for Android and iOS (iPhone). The source of all information are the websites of the software producers. The criteria for including the application in the analysis were: availability on the website play.google.com and usefulness in obstetric-gynecological care of women. As many as 27 applications with the highest number of downloads became the subject matter of the analysis.

Results. Due to the substantive scope of women’s health education, mobile applications were classified into three groups: 1) helpful in controlling the menstrual cycle, 2) helpful in monitoring pregnancy, 3) used in the prevention of diseases in gynecological-obstetric care. Out of all the applications available, 10 were classified to the first and second group each, and 7 to the third one.

Conclusions. Mobile health applications are a promising strategy for health education as a tool for monitoring, improving self-control, and raising awareness in the care of women.

Abstract

Introduction. Research on the nature of moral problems in the work of pediatric nurses and strategies for solving them is significant, among others, for improving vocational education.

Aim. The aim of the study was to examine the opinions of pediatric nurses on the issue of moral problems experienced by them in professional practice and the strategies for solving them.

Material and methods. The research was carried out in a group of 104 pediatric nurses using the method of a survey with the use the authors’ questionnaire.

Results. Half of the nurses surveyed rarely experienced moral problems (55; 52.88%) in their professional work. In solving moral dilemmas, nurses were guided primarily by the voice of their own conscience (64, 61.54%), norms of the code of professional ethics (61, 58.65%) and procedures in force at their place of work (58, 55.77%). In the situation of a moral dilemma, it was important for the respondents to be supported by a departmental nurse (48, 46.15%) and a nurse with longer professional experience (48, 46.15%). The majority of the respondents (90, 86.53%) tried to follow the principles of a professed religion in their professional work. Half of the surveyed notice deficiencies in their knowledge. According to more than half of the respondents (70, 67.30%), the knowledge of professional ethics is useful in clinical practice.

Conclusions. The examined pediatric nurses developed strategies for solving problems of a moral nature in their professional practice. Developing moral sensitivity, improving the ability to make ethical decisions and mutual support in nursing teams are important issues to be focused on in the process of postgraduate and lifelong education of nurses.

Abstract

Introduction. Urinary incontinence (UI) constitutes involuntary leakage of urine and concerns an increasing number of women. It usually occurs in perimenopausal period; however, it may occur any time. Symptoms typical of incontinence cause massive discomfort that can affect the quality of life (QoL).

Aim. The assessment of the QoL in women suffering from UI dependent on sociodemographic variables.

Material and methods. The research encompassed 102 patients of the gynaecological wards of the Independent Clinical Hospital No 1 in Lublin and the Independent Public Clinical Hospital No 4 in Lublin. The inclusion criterion was as follows female patients diagnosed with urinary incontinence and treated in hospital. The study was voluntary and anonymous. The research project was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Medical University of Lublin (No KE-0254/25/2016). The method of diagnostic survey was applied by means of the authors’ own questionnaire and the King’s Health Questionnaire (KHQ). The statistical analysis of the data results was carried out and p<0.05 was assumed as statistically significant.

Results. Age conditioned the QoL in the females researched regarding the influence of the urinary tract symptoms on their general health, partner relations and sleep. The females over 65 years of age showed worse QoL in comparison with the younger ones. Education did not affect the impact of urinary symptoms on the domains of the QoL using the KHQ. The marital status was a variable that influenced the respondents’ QoL. The married women had better QoL than the widowed or divorced ones. The financial situation conditioned the impact of the urinary symptoms on their general health, physical condition and sleep. The females with the average financial situation had worse QoL than those with good financial situation.

Conclusions. The QoL of women with UI depended on their age, marital status and financial situation. The females over 65 years of age who were widowed or divorced with the average financial situation were characterised by worse QoL than the younger and married women with good financial situation.