Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis was diagnosed in a 6-year-old, indoor, neutered female domestic European shorthair cat. Marked pruritus located mainly on the head and neck was noticed in the cat and in this area the animal had developed alopecia, crusts, and plaques. Histologically, monomorphic mast cells were found in the superficial dermis and around the hair follicles. Mast cells were well differentiated, with central nuclei and granular cytoplasm, with metachromatic granules which stained positively with Toluidine blue stain. The animal was successfully treated with oclacitinib at a dose of 1 mg/kg, twice a day per os.
Since there is not enough data about milkability of the Jersey cows, the aim of this paper is to show basic milkability traits of this cattle breed depending on the parity and milk flow curve types. Cows had average daily production (DMY) of 22.23 kg, milk yield per milking (MYM) of 9.72 kg, and average and maximum milk flow about 1.66 and 2.49 kg/min, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that DMY and MYM of the cows in 4th parity was significantly (p---lt---0.05) higher comparing to cows in 1st and 3th parity. The duration of entirely milking is similar regarding the paritiesand only the cows in 3th and 4th differ significantly (p---lt---0.05). Regarding the effect of milk flow curve, the significant (p---lt---0.05) difference between unspecified and rectangular milk flow curve has been found for the average milk flow (AMF) and descending phase of the milk flow curve (TD). Cows with unspecified milk flow curve, have significantly (p---lt---0.05) lower AMF and longer TD compared to cows with rectangular curve. Cows with bimodal milk flow curve have significantly (p---lt---0.05) longer duration of the ascending phase compering to: unspecified, descending and rectangular. The results of this study have shown that Jersey cows have lower production and milk flow compared to other dairy cattle breeds. Nonetheless, they have uniform milkability traits, and a large representation of desirable milk flow curves which are associated with a beneficial effect on the udder health.
Subclinical mastitis is an asymptomatic udder infection distributed worldwide with enormous losses in the dairy industry. The study’s objective was to determine the presence of this pathological condition in small dairy farms in the R. of N. Macedonia and to identify the most common associated bacteria. Milk samples were obtained from 96 dairy cows (378 udder quarters) in seven dairy farms, in 3 consecutive samplings 24-72 hours apart. The samples were cultured on routine bacteriological growth media and incubated for 24-48 hours. The isolates were identified by AximaiD Plus MALDITOF MS Platform. Subclinical mastitis was found in 49 animals (51%) and 104 infected quarters (27%). The most frequent isolated bacteria on cow level were Streptococcus uberis (19.4%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (7.4%) and Staphylococcu ssimulans (7.4%). On quarter level, the most isolated pathogen was Streptococcus uberis (35.6%) followed by Staphylococcu shaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus (10.3% and 9.2% respectively). Subclinical mastitis was found to be highly present in the selected small dairy farms. The most prevalent bacteria identified in the dairy farms (Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase–negative staphylococci) indicate that poor management and udder health practices, inadequate milking procedures and lack of mastitis control strategies greatly contribute to occurrence and persistence of subclinical mastitis.
This paper evaluates possible relations between the clinical activity and the histopathological findings of the entire intestine in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To perform this study, hospital records of 64 dogs of different sex and breed diagnosed with IBD were evaluated. The results of this study did not show a statistically significant correlation between clinical activity and the histopathological assessment of dogs with IBD. Certain connections were found between diarrhea and lacteal dilation in duodenum, and hematochezia and villous epithelial injury in colon but no other associations were found between the rest of the lesions and symptoms.
Echinococcus granulosus is a tapeworm whose life cycle includes dogs and other canines as final hosts, while domestic and wild ungulates act as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading larval stage (metacestode). E. granulosus has a worldwide geographical distribution. Protoscolices and rostellar hooks of E. granulosus are useful for diagnosis and rostellar hook morphometric features may be useful to discriminate E. granulosus and related species. The present study was aimed to determine a more suitable lytic solution and to obtain a clearest vision for performing morphometric studies on the rostellar hooks of E. granulosus protoscolices. Five fertile hydatid cyst samples were collected from sheep in Kirkuk slaughterhouse, Iraq, during June of 2015. According to the results of the present study, proteinase-K lytic solution is the best approach in morphometric analysis to get a clear vision of rostellar hooks and a safer usage in comparison with solutions containing lactophenol (lactophenol, lactophenol blue).
The aim of the present study was to determine copro-prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and their associated potential risk factors in pigs of Punjab (India). A total of 839 faecal samples were collected from pigs of all age group and sex from different agro-climatic zones of Punjab covering all seasons and subjected to qualitative and quantitative examination. Among the samples examined, 28.4 % were positive for gastrointestinal parasites and their respective prevalences were Ascaris suum (11.1 %), coccidia (9.41 %), Trichuris suis (6.43 %), Balantidium coli (4.5 %), amphistome (3.33 %), strongyle (2.14 %) and Ascarops strongylina (1.78 %). Upon sporulation of coccidian positive samples, 8 species of Eimeria were recorded (Eimeria polita, E. spinosa, E. scabra, E. perminuta, E. suis, E. debliecki, E. neodebliecki and E. porci). Among the various risk factors analysed, season, agro-climatic zones and managemental practices had a signifi cant (p<0.05) effect on gastrointestinal parasitism of pigs. Quantification of the infection levels in various seasons and age groups revealed the highest mean egg per gram in rainy season (1966. 6± 1146.5) and grower pigs (1457.1 ± 500.4). Coproculture analysis revealed the presence of larvae of Hyostrongylus rubidus and Oesophagostomum species. The results of the current study would be of immense help in formulation and implementation of control strategies for effective control of gastrointestinal parasitism in pigs.
Reintroduction of endangered species to natural habitat is considered as an important tool for conservation. The effect of drug management on captive population of reintroduced species is largely neglected. Decreased drug efficacy could pose a substantial threat to health of animals. More importantly, captive population without proper drug administration could act as transmission medium of resistance nematodes to wild population, making it important to delay the occurrence of drug resistance in captive population. Ivermectin have been used in captive Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) to eradicate intestinal parasitic nematodes annually, while no available studies describing the drug efficacy in the recent ten years. Here, fecal egg counts pre- and post-treatment were performed with ivermectin through individual trace. Both large and small strongyles were identifi ed by larval culture. The fecal egg count reduction was almost 100% based on egg counting data of 448 samples from 13 Przewalski’s horses. Feces of two Przewalski’s horses were sampled for successive 20 days. Eggs per gram feces usually increased dramatically at the period of 1 – 2 post-treatment days and declined persistently to 0.0 within 15 days. A sustained high ivermectin efficacy against neither Parascaris equorum nor strongyles was indicated, which can be partly explained by the low deworm frequency.
The study evaluated the effectiveness of a commercially available polyherbal dewormer to control intestinal strongyles in naturally infected donkeys. The animals were allotted to two groups: treated with the herbal dewormer (n=8) according to manufacturer recommendations and untreated control group (n=6). Fecal samples were taken from each animal on days 0 (day of treatment), 14, 21 (day of second additional treatment), 35, and 42. Faecal egg count reduction tests showed very negligible or no reduction in number of strongyle eggs for donkeys in the phytotherapeutic treatment group compared to those in the control group. Thus, the herbal dewormer was mostly ineffective in reducing fecal egg counts in donkeys infected with intestinal strongyles. These findings can make equine practitioners aware of possible disadvantages of herbal dewormers.
Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) is the causative agent of heartworm disease (HWD), a severe and potentially fatal condition in dogs. Although cats are considered more resistant to infection than dogs, they are also susceptible to heartworm infection. Moreover, the clinical importance of feline dirofilariosis has increased in recent years, especially in heartworm endemic areas. In contrast to dog, definitive antemortem diagnosis of heartworm infection in cat is difficult to achieve and a combination of testing methods must be used for clinical confirmation. Here we describe a clinical case of heartworm infection in a 12-year-old male mixed breed cat, originated from Southern Romania, which was referred to a veterinary clinic with a history of vomiting and clinical signs of respiratory distress. The thoracic radiograph showed a diffuse bronchointerstitial pattern of the pulmonary parenchyma. The serological test for D. immitis circulating antibody was positive and heartworms were visualized by echocardiography in the main pulmonary artery. In conclusion, the present study clearly shows that cats are at risk for D. immitis infection in heartworm-endemic areas in Romania. Additionally, the findings highlight the urgent need for increased awareness among veterinary practitioners of the existence of feline heartworm diseases and for adequate prophylactic measures to be applied. To our knowledge, this is the first report on clinical evolution and radiographic and echocardiographic features of a naturally heartworm-infected cat in Romania.
Dioctophyma renale is the largest nematode that infects domestic mammals and is the aetiologic agent of a serious renal disease, dioctophymatosis. It has an indirect life cycle with carnivores serving as final hosts and earthworms as intermediate hosts. The parasite can infect humans with signifi cant zoonotic potential. The pathogenesis of dioctophymatosis is mainly associated with the extent of renal atrophy caused by the parasites, the risk of bilateral renal infestation and the location of the parasite (extrarenal cases). Clinical diagnosis is challenging, and the only treatment option is nephrectomy or nephrotomy to remove the adult nematode. A 6-year-old female crossbreed dog presented with tachypnea, tachycardia and severe hematuria, but died shortly after presentation. Postmortem examination found the right kidney was enlarged and two adult nematodes were found in the renal pelvis. The left kidney was normal. The nematodes were collected and submitted for identifi cation. The two specimens were identifi ed as D. renale using specific identifi cation keys. Herein we present the first case of renal parasitosis by the nematode D. renale in a dog from Greece. This case highlights the need for investigation of the actual prevalence of the parasite and the use of measures for the control of its expansion aiming the protection of dogs and public health.