Whilst, in many countries, the scale of forest loss from business-as-usual development is immense, in Poland, this problem does not exist. However, obtaining additional land areas for afforestation is a main issue in Poland. In Poland, after the World War II, the forest area has been systematically growing. In 1945, the forest area was about 6.5 million ha, and the forest cover was 21%. In 2016, the forest area reached 9.2 million ha, and forest cover amounted to 29.5%. Today, there are 0.24 ha of forests per one inhabitant of Poland. The size of wood resources in stands is also changing. In 1945, forest resources on the trunk amounted to approximately 906 million m3, and in 2016, it reached 2.4 million m3. The problem, however, is the uneven distribution of forests in Poland. Forests in Poland are very strictly protected by law. There are two most important acts, Forest Act of 2001 and Nature Conservation Act of 2004, that regulate principles for the retention, protection and augmentation of forest resources. Over the past decades in Poland, the social demands regarding non-economical functions of forest such as recreational activities, soil and water protection and mitigation of global warming became an important and constantly growing challenge for forest managers. Thus we suggest that, first of all, it is very important to extract the leading function for a given forest area. Interactions between development and conservations policies are very tied and may suggest the need of their integration. In this article, we present the concept of development policy for forest management and forest protection in Poland.
In forest production, there is an emerging tendency towards the planting of fast-growing trees as attractive, renewable energy sources. Hence, efforts were made to develop a method of micropropagation by organogenesis of seven clones of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) that are resistant to propagation by traditional vegetative methods, as well as one plus tree (no. 9755) at the age of 60, to see if the age of the mother plant is a limitation in the micropropagation of black locust trees. Overall results suggest that Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 30 g l−1 sucrose, 0.6 mg l−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg l−1 naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) is better for the propagation of each genotype of R. pseudoacacia than Woody Plant Medium with the same growth regulators, and the age of the donor plant does not affect the organogenic potential. Recalcitrance to adventitious rooting from adventitious shoot formation is a major limitation for the clonal micropropagation of forest trees. Our results showed that although the roots were also formed spontaneously in the growth medium without growth hormones for the tested black locust clones, the application of auxin increased the total root length compared to that in the medium with active carbon and control. A significant effect of the additives of hormone and sucrose on the total root length was found. Increasing the sucrose concentration stimulated the induction of roots in each of the tested concentrations (5, 10, 15 or 20 g l−1). Additionally, the change in sugar dose in the rooting medium caused significant differences in total root length.
The term forest fire risk means the existence of such conditions that would make possible the occurrence of a fire in the forest environment. The base for the effectiveness of a forest fire protection system is the evaluation of the forest fire risk followed by adequate organization of the system. This article presents methods for determination of the forest susceptibility to fire known as potential forest fire risk. The below presented methods were developed by Forest Research Institute as the results of the projects commissioned by the General Directorate of State Forests. The forest fire risk category and stand flammability classes are the methods included here. The forest fire risk category was elaborated already in 1975 for the first time. Until today, after the last modification in 2008, it is the fundamental document for the polish forest fire protection system. The purpose of this modification was to increase the determination accuracy of the fire risk category of all polish forest, regardless of its ownership type and at the different administrative level. The categorization method, however, doesn’t reflect the fire risk in micro scale. The attempt to solve that problem was made in 2018 while developing the methodology of stand flammability classes. It was assumed that ground cover fuel models will be developed for the most flammable forest habitat types including ground cover types, dominant species, age class and geographical localisation.
Forests in Kampinos National Park contain some of the most valuable tree populations in Poland. Particularly interesting are stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) that are more than 130-years-old. Periodic observations of the health of tree crowns in these stands facilitates a wide range of research investigations. This article evaluates statistical relationships between allometric features of trees and the occurrence and severity of crown defoliation.
Observations were made of 5 pine populations in 2017 and 2019, in which detailed data were collected for 250 trees. The percentage loss of the assimilation apparatus and level of stand damage were calculated.
The results revealed a significant increase in defoliation between 2017 and 2019. The deterioration of crown condition was particularly evident on the most fertile sites. The degree of crown damage was not correlated with tree height or diameter. The greatest increase in defoliation between 2017 and 2019 was observed for the most severely damaged trees growing on fertile sites.
This study contributes analyses aimed at correlating the allometric features of a stand with its health. Such information is valuable as it describes the status of the analysed stands, as well as providing information about how trees have responded to environmental conditions. In this study, crown defoliation coincided with a period of drought in Poland, which appears to have affected pine stands. For these reasons, the results are of both scientific and practical value.
Global climate change has mainly impacted the forest ecosystems in Europe. Today, it is not fully understood how these changes will affect the reproductive process of trees on seed orchards. The main aim of the study is to evaluate the growth, condition and reproductive function of Scots pine clones of Finnish origin after moving them to the southern direction of natural distribution area. Variability and seed productivity of 25-year-old clones of Scots pine of Finnish origin in the clonal seed orchard under climatic conditions of the central part of Ukraine (Vinnitsa region) was investigated. Grafted seedlings of Scots pine of Finnish origin were moved southward at a distance of over 1,500 km. Climatic conditions of Vinnytsia region, where the clones were displaced, differed by an increase in the mean and maximum temperatures by 3.3–3.6ºC, as well as an increase in the mean temperatures during the cold period and a rise in the minimum by 2.1–2.3ºC. The climate in the seed orchard location was characterized by the most significant increase in the mean temperatures in April and May (5.3–5.8ºC), which greatly influenced the intensity of the formation of microstrobili and macrostrobili. The ratio of precipitation to the amount of temperatures decreased more than twice. Analysis of the grafted trees’ vitality of Finnish origin and seed progeny of the local population, estimation of their intensity (height, diameter), state (category of the state) and reproductive processes (intensity of formation of microstrobili and cones) was carried out on the clonal seed orchard. In conditions of climate change, most of the clones of Finnish origin were characterized by a higher intensity of flowering compared to the local population. Some clones of Finnish origin (E80 and E729) dominated the local population by the seed yield. According to a comprehensive analysis of vitality, the intensity of growth and reproductive capacity, the best clones of Finnish origin were E80, E1883 and E2254. Low adaptive ability was noted in the clones E2312, K634 and K801. According to the research results, it was found that changes in climatic conditions did not significantly affect the vitality, development and condition of the clones. There was observed intensification of the formation of microstrobili and cones. Seed viability and quality of Scots pine of Finnish origin obtained on seed orchards located in the southern conditions requires further research.
The aim of our study was evaluation of potential antioxidant effects of marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract and assessment of its in vitro impact on the selected quality parameters of bovine spermatozoa. Marigold is medicinal herb from the family Asteraceae native to southern Europe, and it commonly used in pharmacology and medicine. Its well-known positive properties include antioxidant, antibacterial, antiflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, antihelmintic and wound-healing activities. In this study, the flower extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which identified especially phenolic acids (rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids) and polyphenols (rutin, kaempferol, resveratrol, quercetin and apigenin). These substances are known for their antioxidant activity and protective effects against oxidative stress. For our experiments, 10 samples of semen from sexually mature Holstein bulls were collected on a single day by using an artificial vagina, diluted in physiological saline solution and exposed to solutions with different concentration of marigold flower extract (75, 150 and 300 µg/mL). Selected quality parameters (motility, mitochondrial activity, production of reactive oxygen species – ROS, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation – LPO) were analyzed after 0, 2 and 24 hours of in vitro culture. The motility evaluation was performed by using the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) method. This method revealed that 75 and 150 µg/mL extract had positive effects and increased the motility (P<0.01) and mitochondrial activity (P<0.0001) of bovine spermatozoa compared to the control group following 2 and 24 hours. This phenomenon was observed also in case of ROS production, protein oxidation and LPO. Marigold extract concentrations of 75 and 150 µg/mL decreased the levels of ROS, protein oxidation and damage to the membranes caused by LPO compared to the control group (P<0.05; P<0.01) at time 2 and 24 hours. At the same time, 300 µg/mL extract exhibited positive, although less significant, effects compared to 75 and 150 µg/mL extracts. The data acquired from our study confirm that 75 and 150 µg/mL of marigold flower extract have positive effects on the motility and mitochondrial activity of bovine spermatozoa, and decrease ROS generation, LPO and protein oxidation in spermatozoa. Based on our results, the flower extract from marigold could be used for protection against oxidative stress in in vitro cultures of male gametes.
Both COP21 and COP22 stressed the role of forests in climate protection as a natural CO2 sink. With this in mind, the study reviewed some literature findings related to afforestation, stand level management, forest soils, peatland management and storage yards to increase the amount of CO2 absorbed by the forest ecosystem. It was shown that some of the assumptions, for example, afforestation or improved water relations in soils, may contribute to reduced CO2 levels in the atmosphere. Our research was of a review nature and consisted in seeking information in various scientific publications. For a better interpretation of the results, we have divided our research into several parts. In the first part, we analysed the importance of deforestation and afforestation in the context of CO2 accumulation. We discussed the results of research on these issues giving specific examples. We have analysed the possibility of afforestation of new land. Using the example of Poland, we have indicated problems related to this issue. We have analysed the possibility of afforestation of new land. On the example of Poland, we have indicated problems related to this problem. We have come to the conclusion that in today’s Europe, the obstacle to such efforts is the lack of land that can be afforested and the financial incentive to abandon farming for forestry is too low. In the second part, we discussed the role of forest stands in the process of CO2 accumulation and reduction. We discussed breeding treatments that can be performed on racks. We noticed their importance in the CO2 reduction process. We noticed that when the density of forests increased, this has a positive effect on organic carbon storage. We presented and discussed examples of different rotation strategies in the context of their impact on CO2 accumulation. We analysed issues related to obtaining wood raw material and possible further storage of coal or its release into the atmosphere. We have recognized that proper forest soil management is important for CO2 accumulation. Therefore, another part of the research was devoted to the discussion on the role of soil in the process of CO2 accumulation. We discussed examples of using soil for forest and non-forest purposes, looking for the answer: how does this affect CO2 accumulation? In addition, we analysed the impact of soil moisture on processes related to CO2 storage. In our research, we critically treated wood storage as a method of reducing CO2. We also discussed the problem of treating wood as a source of bioenergy. We came to the conclusion that wood as an energy source can have a positive effect on CO2 reduction. The condition is, however, that energy produced from wood replaces energy from fossil fuels. Finally, we presented and discussed financial and legal issues related to CO2 reduction activities involving forests. We have found that attempts to commercialize CO2 emission reduction units for emissions generated in forests should be linked to the environmental responsibility of companies, and as such, should not be included in the current emissions’ trading policies. In the article, we also present a Polish proposal to run coal farms. We discuss their importance in the context of the issues discussed in this article.
The common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L. 1758) is an allochtonous game species of great importance to the hunting sector in Serbia. Growing concerns over a decline in its population raise issues about the proper management and hunting of common pheasants. As this research tends to identify the importance of common pheasants to Serbian hunters, the present study is based on a mixed research model combining traditional analyses with social studies on Serbian hunters. The data utilized have been collected from the annual management plans of 272 hunting grounds across Serbia and the interviews with 377 hunters. The results obtained suggest that there are significant differences between the analyzed variables in the management plans examined, which indicates that the pheasant hunting management in Serbia is not harmonized. However, the social studies conducted identify the common pheasant as the most hunted and popular game species with Serbian hunters. Accordingly, the common pheasant hunting and management in Serbia has to be improved in order to meet the hunters’ expectations and ensure their satisfaction.
The apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) possesses a number of health-promoting properties. The main beneficial effects of apple fruits on human health are associated with the antioxidant properties of components synthesising in apple fruits during their growth and development. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are such components that contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity of fruits, thus enhancing their health properties. The purpose of this study is to compare the antioxidant properties (namely antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic and flavonoid contents) of the ‘Idared’ and ‘Braeburn’ apple cultivars, grown under optimal growing conditions in the Goražde area. Ascorbic acid contents were estimated using the 2.6-dichlorophenolindophenol titration method, whereas total phenolics were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Furthermore, total flavonoids were determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, whereas the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay was used to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the apple fruits examined. The average values of the ascorbic acid, the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, and the total antioxidant capacity of the ‘Idared’ apples under consideration were 8.09 mg 100 g−1, 34.56 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g−1, 12.62 mg catechin equivalents 100 g−1 and 323.28 μmol Fe2+ 100 g−1of fresh weight, respectively. The average values of the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, as well as the antioxidant capacity of the ‘Braeburn’ apples examined were as follows: 8.89 mg 100 g−1, 33.4 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g−1, 13.56 mg catechin equivalents 100 g−1 and 367.01 μmol Fe2+ 100 g−1 of fresh weight, respectively. The analyses performed indicate that the differences recorded in the parameter values between the apple cultivars ‘Idared’ and ‘Braeburn’ were statistically non-significant. A correlation data analysis confirmed that phenolic compounds are the carriers of the antioxidant activity of apples.