The responses of 96 day old broilers fed Chromolaena odorata leaf meal (COLM) on blood profile and gut microbial load were studied for 49 days. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatment groups and replicated three times in a completely randomized design. The birds were fed four experimental diets formulated at 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% for the starter phase and 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% of COLM at the finisher phase for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. All the haematological parameters were similar (P>0.05) across the treatment groups except MCH and WBC which were significantly (P< 0.05) higher and better in the treatment groups than the control group. The results on serum chemistry showed significant (P<0.05) difference for total protein, albumin, creatinine and cholesterol across the treatment groups. Cholesterol was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with increasing levels of COLM. Results showed that coliforms and E.coli were consistently higher (P<0.05) among the T1 birds than those fed T2, T3 and T4. It was concluded that, COLM enhanced adequate haematocrit and immune status, hypoglycaemic ability, suppresses the growth of gut pathogenic microorganisms and enhanced the growth of beneficial microorganism in broilers.
Information on estimates of combining ability of the promising lines of breeding material is important for evolving higher yielding varieties of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). An experiment was conducted to quantitatively examine the genetic parameters of phenological traits, plant height, pods on main raceme, pods per plant and seed yield for eight oilseed rape genotypes using a half-diallel crosses. The result of the diallel analysis revealed significant mean squares of general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA) for all studied traits, indicating the importance of additive and non-additive genetic effects for these traits. On the other hand estimation of high narrow-sense heritability estimates for days to flowering, duration of flowering and pods on main raceme, indicated the prime importance of additive genetic effects for these traits. L420 and L401 with significant negative GCA effects for days to flowering and days to maturity were suitable for yielding early maturity combinations. L41, Zafar and L22 with significant positive GCA effects for seed yield were superior parents for increasing seed yield. The crosses with significant positive SCA effects for seed yield had at least one parent with significant positive GCA effects for this trait. The crosses including L41×L22, L41×LF2, Zafar×L22 and Zafar×L420 with seed yield of 3421.7, 3400, 3348.1 and 3311.3 kg ha-1 could be promising for determination of superior recombinants for high seed yield coupled with other growth characters in advanced generations of segregation.
This paper presents a method of estimating the size of plants by using two parallel views of the scene, taken by a common digital camera. The approach relays on the principle of similar triangles with the following constraints: the resolution of the camera is known; the object is always in parallel to the camera sensor and the intermediate distance between the two concessive images is available. The approach was first calibrated and tested using one artificial object in a controlled environment. After that real examples were taken from agriculture, where we measured the distance and the size of a vine plant, apple and pear tree. By comparing the calculated values to measured values, we concluded that the average absolute error in distance was 0.11 m or around 3.7 %, and the absolute error in high was 0.09 m or 4.6 %.
The growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical characteristics of thirty-six West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep of about 10 - 12 months of age and averaged 8.53kg in weight were sourced from the College flock. Four dietary treatments designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 were formulated to contain 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% oil palm leaf meal (OPLM) respectively were randomly assigned to the animals. The experimental animals were divided into four groups of nine animals each, with each group replicated thrice with three animals per replicate. Each group was allotted to one of the diets in a completely randomized design. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the trial and weekly subsequently and data for growth performance were generated. Blood samples were obtained from one animal in each replicate, and data generated were analyzed statistically. Average daily feed intake, total dry matter intake and average daily weight gain were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatment, with animals on T4 group having higher and better values. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) also differed significantly (P<0.05) with sheep on T3 and T4 (11.82 and 11.49 respectively) having the best FCR. The haematology showed that the packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCV) were significantly (P < 0.05) improved at 10%, 20% and 30% inclusion levels of OPLM, respectively. Sheep in treatment groups had improved (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count than those on the control group. Serum biochemistry results showed that total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly influenced (P < 0.05) and tended to increase with increasing levels of test ingredient. Sheep in treatment groups had higher (P < 0.05) urea values than those on control. Creatinine values at 20% and 30% inclusion differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the control value. Cholesterol was significantly influenced (P < 0.05) and followed an irregular trend across the treatment groups. The results showed that inclusion of OPLM had a beneficial effect on the general performance of the WAD sheep. Therefore, 30% OPLM supplementation was recommended for optimum performance in WAD sheep.
In 2013 and 2014, a long-term trial (which was established in 2007) was conducted at the University Agricultural Centre in Pivola near Hoče. It included different production systems (conventional, integrated, organic, biodynamic), carried out in a field trial with oil pumpkins. The aim of the research was to analyse the effects of different production systems, varieties (hybrid and population variety) and years of production, on formation of oil pumpkin yields. The agricultural practice has been carried out in accordance with the applicable legislations and standards for the individual production system. When sowing, before fertilizing with nitrogen in early June and after the harvest, the amount of soil mineral nitrogen was monitored. We evaluated the number and weight of harvestable, unripe and decayed fruits, and yield of oil seed pumpkins and calculated the agronomic efficiency of the applied nutrients. The results showed that the year of production, the production system and the variety have a significant effect on some fruit characteristics and the yield of oil pumpkin seeds. The content of soil mineral nitrogen in May and September was significantly influenced by the production system and the year. In June, only the production system had a significant effect. The hybrid significantly increased the yields of oil pumpkin seeds in all production systems, even in the year that was less suitable for production. The agronomic efficiency of the applied nutrients in the biodynamic and organic production system is higher or equal than in the conventional production system, similarly, agronomic efficiency is higher in the hybrid compared to the oldest population variety efficiently. A comparable oil pumpkin yield can be expected in biodynamic and organic production, when proper nutrition and well carried out cultivation practices are combined with a new variety, when compared to less sustainable production systems, which often cause damage to the environment.
The response of agricultural commodities to changes in price is an important factor in the success of any reform programme in agricultural sector of Nigeria. The producers of traditional agricultural commodities, such as cassava, face the world market directly. Consequently, the producer price of cassava has become unstable, which is a disincentive for both its production and trade. This study investigated cassava supply response to changes in price. Data collected from FAOSTAT from 1966 to 2010 were analysed using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) approach. The results of the VECM for the estimation of short run adjustment of the variables toward their long run relationship showed a linear deterministic trend in the data and that Area cultivated and own prices jointly explained 74% and 63% of the variation in the Nigeria cassava output in the short run and long-run respectively. Cassava prices (P<0.001) and land cultivated (P<0.1) had positive influence on cassava supply in the short-run. The short-run price elasticity was 0.38 indicating that price policies were effective in the short-run promotion of cassava production in Nigeria. However, in the long-run elasticity cassava was not responsive to price incentives significantly. This suggests that price policies are not effective in the long-run promotion of cassava production in the country owing to instability in governance and government policies.
Two microsporidian species, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, infect honey bees (Apis mellifera) worldwide. They are obligate intracellular parasites that multiply in the epithelial lining of the bee’s midgut and cause nosemosis. N. ceranae infections were primarily found in Apis cerana and raised interest in the last decade with the discovery of their presence in the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). Nosema spp. utilizes hosts’ energetic reserves for the purpose of propagation and disrupts the digestive processes of the bee. Nosemosis reduces the lifespan of a single bee and affects the performance of the colony. It also has an economic impact through the reduction in the honey and pollen yield of severely infected colonies or even causes them to collapse. Lack of effective therapy for nosemosis is of special concern and calls for scientific attention. Although N. ceranae and N. apis are similar in many aspects, there are important differences between them such as clinical signs of infection or the ability to resist low temperatures.
The field experiment aimed at determination of influence of autumn harvest on rhythm of the growth of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) and yield quality of the first cut in the following year was carried out in Spodnji Gabernik (258 m above sea level, 46°15′54.94″ N and 15°34′6.05″ E), in the fourth growth year of the lucerne variety ‘Soča’. The experiment was designed as a randomized block in four replications. The individual treatments represented weekly autumn cuttings (1) 24/9/2014, (2) 01/10/2014, (3) 08/10/2014, (4) 15/10/2014 and (5) 22/10/2014. The paper presents data associated with the amount of lucerne dry matter yield (DMY) per treatment compared with the DMY of the first spring cut in the year 2015 (18/05/2015). The growth rhythm of lucerne in each treatment, which took place before the first cut in year 2015, was based on the measurements of the height of the plants. The yield quality was evaluated by NIRS method for determination of crude protein (CP), the net energy of lactation (NEL) and metabolic energy (ME) in dry samples regarding to DMY of each treatment. In autumn 2014, statistically significant higher dry matter yields were obtained in later harvested treatments (5 and 4). Similarly, in spring 2015 the trend of higher crop dry matter yield was observed in treatments harvested later in the autumn of 2014. However, the differences were not significant. Statistically significant differences between treatments were acquired within CPY, NELY and MEY. Before the first mowing, in spring 2015, statistically significant trend of higher plants was also detected in treatments with later cutting in 2014.
A 90-day study was carried out with 36 West African Dwarf goats to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on feed intake, body weight changes and haematology of WAD does. Four diets were formulated such that diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained MOLM at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively. The diets were offered to the goats, which were randomly divided into four groups of nine goats each in a completely randomized design. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily weight gain (ADWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and heamatology of the animals were determined and statistically analyzed. Results showed that ADFI, ADWG differed significantly (P<0.05) with T4 goats having better values. FCR was however best for does fed T4 diet. PCV, RBC, MCV and WBC differed (P<0.05) significantly among the treatments. Packed cell volume (29.50-32.75%) was improved (p<0.05) by MOLM supplementation at 15% inclusion level. White blood cell counts for goats in treatment groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher and better than the control. Incorporation of 15% MOLM in diets of WAD does enhanced their performance and heamatological profile. Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation level at 15% was recommended for optimum West African Dwarf goat production.
Different plant genotypes react differently in different climates. A field experiment was carried out to estimate the growth performance, productivity and diseases susceptibility of spring barley varieties in the Slovenian climate. We received some varieties, mainly of Nordic origin, from the Technical University of Denmark, a COBRA project partner, which were previously tested in estimated future climate in RERAF phytotron. Varieties of the highest grain yield (3,993 kg ha-1 in ‘Evergreen’ to 5,146 kg ha-1 in ‘Sebastian’) were rather shorter (58.7 cm to 67.1 cm) and mostly had the highest specific grain weight (54.3 to 58.6 kg 100 L-1) and 1000-kernel weight (30.2 to 37.1 g). They developed 1,561 to 2,532 tillers m-2 and 515 to 840 ears m-2 and reached a heading stage between 13th and 25th of May. The tested varieties seem rather insusceptible to most common diseases, but susceptible to cereal leaf beetle attacks.