In veterinary medicine, sensitive and specific markers of the early stages of renal failure still remain to be established. Podocytes could be a promising diagnostic tool in veterinary nephrology, especially in the differentiation of active pathological disease and glomerulopathies. Podocin is one of the robust proteins exploitable in detection of podocyturia. This article presents podocyte detection in urine for diagnostic purposes in veterinary medicine using a variety of methods. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of the immunohistochemical technique currently used, and of scanning microscopy, chromatography, and immunostaining. The identification of podocin-positive cells is a promising diagnostic tool in the detection of the early stages of glomerular basement membrane damage. The detection of renal failure prior to the occurrence of azotaemia is of high clinical importance from the clinical and scientific points of view.
Viral infections are the greatest threat to waterfowl and cause significant economic losses. Diagnosis and differentiation of three goose viruses is difficult in the field and often requires laboratory confirmation. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop a triplex PCR and optimise its parameters for simultaneous detection of DNA of goose parvovirus (GPV), goose polyomavirus (GHPV), and goose circovirus (GoCV).
Material and Methods
The DNA of viruses isolated from field cases from the National Veterinary Research Institute’s own collection was used for the study. The primer attachment temperature, the number of reaction cycles, and the Taq DNA polymerase and Mg2+ concentrations were optimised. The sensitivity and specificity of this triplex PCR was also determined.
Based on the obtained results, triplex PCR parameters were optimised for simultaneous detection of DNA of GPV, GHPV, and GoCV in one sample. The following PCR products of the expected size were obtained: GPV DNA of 806 bp, GoCV DNA of 571 bp, and GHPV DNA of 180 bp.
The developed triplex PCR method proved to be useful for simultaneous detection of infections with three waterfowl viruses and will be used in relevant laboratory diagnostics.
The Orobic goat is a hardy breed native to the Orobic Alps (Lombardy, northern Italy). The aim of the study was the assessment of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) egg excretion in Alpine and Saanen (cosmopolite breeds) and Orobic grazing goats, after a strategic treatment with eprinomectin in late June.
Material and Methods
Individual faecal samples from a mixed flock of cosmopolite and Orobic goats were collected and analysed by the FLOTAC double technique every three weeks from June to September.
Strongylida was the primary GIN infection observed in goats that grazed on Alpine pastures; a strategic treatment with eprinomectin led to a prolonged reduction of egg excretion during the whole study period. Egg excretion was also influenced by breed. Pluriparous Orobic does were able to control reinfection better than the pluriparous cosmopolite does. Regarding Nematodirus sp. eggs per gram of faeces (EPG), the autochthonous Orobic breed presented higher values than the cosmopolite breeds. However, cosmopolite goats presented higher EPG values of Strongyloides papillosus than their Orobic counterparts in August.
Further studies on genetic features of local autochthonous goats, such as the Orobic breed, are needed, since they could reveal peculiar characteristics of susceptibility, resistance or resilience to GIN infection, providing genetic resources for selection.
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a newly discovered porcine circovirus. The molecular characteristics and genetic evolution of PCV3 in Xinjiang province, China still being unclear, the aim of the study was their elucidation.
Material and Methods
A total of 393 clinical samples were collected from pigs on commercial farms in nine different regions of Xinjiang and phylogenetic analysis based on full-length Cap genes was performed.
The prevalence at farm level was 100%, while in all the tested samples it was 22.39%. Nine PCV3 strains were detected in Xinjiang province and they shared 98.9–99.3% nucleotide and 97.5–100.0% Cap gene amino acid sequence identities with other epidemic strains from China and abroad. Compared with other epidemic strains of PCV3, there were 26 base mutation sites in the Cap gene in the nine Xinjiang strains, resulting in the mutation of amino acids at positions 20, 24, 75, 77, 108, 111 and 206. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains can be divided into two different genetic groups, to the first of which five strains affiliated and divided between subgroups 1.1 and 1.2, and to the second of which the other four strains affiliated and similarly divided between subgroups 2.1 and 2.2.
PCV3 circulates widely among commercial pig farms in Xinjiang province, China, and displays obvious genetic diversity. The results provide epidemiological information useful for the prevention and control of PCV3 infection in the pig industry.
The study of histopathological changes caused by influenza A (H5N8) viral infection in bird species is essential for the understanding of their role in the spread of this highly infectious virus. However, there are few such studies under natural conditions in minor gallinaceous species. This article describes the pathomorphological findings in Colchis pheasants infected naturally with H5N8 during an epizootic outbreak in Bulgaria.
Material and Methods
Samples of internal organs of 10 carcasses were collected for histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation, virus isolation and identification, and nucleic acid detection.
Consistent macroscopic findings were lesions affecting the intestine, heart, lung, and pancreas. Congestion and mononuclear infiltrate were common findings in the small intestine, as were necrosis and lymphoid clusters in the lamina propria of the caeca. Congestion with small focal necrosis and gliosis with multifocal nonpurulent encephalitis were observed in the brain. Myocardial interstitial oedema and degenerative necrobiotic processes were also detected. Immunohistological analysis confirmed systemic infection and revealed influenza virus nucleoprotein in all analysed organs.
Variable necrosis was observed in the brain, liver, trachea, heart, small intestine, and caeca. Viral antigen was commonly found in the brain, heart, lung and trachea. Contact with migrating waterfowls was suspected as a reason for the outbreak.
Medicinal products in Europe are under the strict control of many organisations headed by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare (EDQM) in Strasbourg and its related General European Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) Network (GEON). The EDQM works in cooperation with the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). All of these institutions have one main goal – to protect public health in Europe and around the world. One of the more important effects of the harmonisation of pharmaceutical law in Europe was the introduction of the mutual recognition principle for the Official Control Authority Batch Release (OCABR)/Official Batch Protocol Review (OBPR) certificates in the European Union. The National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) in Poland is an example of an OMCL laboratory within the Veterinary Batch Release Network (VBRN) that issues the European certificates. The NVRI is actively involved in the batch release of immunological veterinary medicinal products (IVMPs), with approximately 1,800 certificates for IVMPs issued per year. It is also one of only four veterinary OMCLs that perform Post Marketing Surveillance (PMS) studies including approximately 47 IVMPs per year. All the results of the testing data are sent to the Chief Veterinary Officer, and also to the electronic Network platforms of the EDQM, which enables transparent information exchange.
The aim of this study was to investigate Q fever seroprevalence in sheep and goats in the Marmara region. Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. In ruminants, the disease causes reproductive disorders, premature births and stillbirths.
Material and Methods
Blood samples of sheep and goats were collected from the Marmara region of Turkey and a commercial ELISA was used for detection of specific antibodies to C. burnetii. A total of 832 samples (627 from sheep and 205 from goats) obtained from 126 herds located in 110 villages in 63 municipalities across all 11 provinces were utilised.
Total seroprevalence was found to be 13.22%, while the proportion of seropositive herds was determined to be over threefold higher at 42.85%. The seroprevalence for sheep was found to be 14.19%, and for goats 10.24%. The herd seropositivity rate for sheep of 46.31% and for goats of 32.25% were also over threefold higher than the species-level seroprevalences. The provincial seroprevalence varied between 1.38% and 21.79%.
This study confirms the presence of C. burnetii in sheep and goat herds in the Marmara region and provides original seroprevalence data in hitherto uninvestigated provinces. The data gathered are beneficial for evaluation and elaboration of the seroprevalence of Q fever in sheep and goats in the Marmara region. Surveillance studies should be maintained, particularly in provinces with high seropositivity rates.
Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that has been traditionally identified as a cause of reproductive tract disease in cattle and gastrointestinal tract infection in cats. Moreover, T. foetus is also well known as a commensal of the nasal cavity, intestines, and stomach in swine. In this review we describe T. foetus as a pathogen dangerous to more than one animal host, diagnostic and taxonomic aspects of this infection, and the extent to which isolates from different hosts share genetic identity.
Oxamyl is a carbamate insecticide used to control a broad spectrum of insects. It can also affect non-targeted organisms when applied incorrectly. The world food production depends partially on honeybee pollination abilities and therefore it is directly linked to the health of bees. The success of the colony development depends, among other factors, on the health of the larvae. The first 6 days are crucial for their development. In this stage, the worker larvae grow exponentially and may be exposed to xenobiotics via their diet. In this study, we investigated the effect of oxamyl on honeybee larvae (Apis mellifera) by monitoring the changes in their antioxidant enzyme system. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were determined in the homogenates of in vitro reared honeybee larvae after their single dietary exposure to oxamyl at doses of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 µg a.i./larva (a. i.—active ingredient). The doses of oxamyl did not cause statistically significant changes in the activities of the enzymes. Even a slight activation of these enzymes protected the larvae from the adverse effects of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). Marked changes in both the enzyme activity and the content of lipid peroxidation products were observed at the oxamyl dose of 10 µg a. i./larva. This fact may indicate a potential oxidative damage to the larvae. These results allowed us to assume that the toxic effects of oxamyl involves not only the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase but is also associated with ROS production.
Wound management is one of the oldest and one of the most frequent therapeutic activities in medicine. Over the centuries there has been described and tested many therapeutic substances for the treatment of wounds with various effects. Due to the discovery of antibiotics, a wound management regime used to be limited only to a local application. Over years, it has been shown, that comprehensive therapy which uses only antibacterial preparations, also may contain some negative points (resistance of aggressive pathogens, toxicity, allergic reactions, etc.). According to studies, the best solution to this problem is a local application, using preparations that ensure the sterility of the affected parts of the skin, and the utilization of agents that are able to accelerate the granulation and lead to the healing process of the wound. Products that contain beta glucan combined with a gentle but effective antiseptics (chlorhexidine digluconate), or natural substance with antiseptic and also nourishment effect (honey), are very beneficial in wound management. A good penetration of active agents, the ability to moisturize defective tissues, and to make a protective film that hinder the intersection of impurities and decrease secondary contamination, are the benefits of a gel formulation, that is the most appropriate external form of application in veterinary practice that can improve and accelerate a successful healing process of wounds in animals.