Browse

1 - 10 of 737 items :

  • Microbiology and Virology x
  • Life Sciences, other x
Clear All

Abstract

Introduction

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of pigs, leading to economic losses around the world. Attenuated live vaccines with CSFV antigens have played an important role in the prevention and control of the disease. Porcine kidney 15 (PK15) cells have been widely used for the propagation of CSFV, but this cell line is not efficient or homogeneously susceptible to viral infection.

Material and Methods

To achieve a homogeneous PK15 cell line which enabled high titre replication of CSFV, we used the limiting dilution cell cloning method.

Results

We developed two cell clones, PK15-1A6 and PK15-3B1, which respectively have high- and low-permissive phenotypes to CSFV infection. The PK15-1A6, PK15-3B1, and PK15 parent cells showed different characteristics in cell proliferation rate, susceptibility to CSFV infection, and CSFV production. The mean virus titres per millilitre reflected by TCID50 values in PK15-1A6, PK15-3B1, and PK15 parent cells were 106.85, 103.63, and 104.74, respectively.

Conclusion

The PK15-1A6 cell clone is more permissive to CSFV infection than the PK15 parent cells. The screened high-permissive cells will be useful for CSFV propagation and vaccine development in vitro, and facilitate research on the pathogenicity of CSFV.

Abstract

In canine and feline populations, the number of neoplasm cases continues to increase around the world. Attempts are being made in centres of research to identify new biomarkers that speed up and improve the quality of oncological diagnostics and therapy in human and animal tumour patients. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a promising biomarker with increasing relevance to human oncology, but as yet with less application in veterinary oncology. The expression of COX-2 increases significantly during pathological processes involving inflammation, pain or fever. It is also overexpressed in humans presenting various types of tumours and in selected types of tumours in animals, particularly in dogs. This article discusses the expression of COX-2 in canine and feline tumours, the importance of COX-2 as a biomarker with diagnostic, therapeutic, prognostic and predictive relevance in oncology, and the clinical significance of inhibiting COX-2 overexpression in tumours.

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of this study was to determine the content of fatty acids in eggs harvested from two edible subspecies of Polish-bred common garden snail from the Cornu genus, as well as this content in the retail-ready product obtained from these eggs.

Material and Methods

Material for the study consisted of eggs from two subspecies of edible snails: the small (Cornu aspersum aspersum), and large (Cornu aspersum maxima) common garden snails. The eggs studied were in two forms, the first of which had undergone initial processing to the half-product stage and the second of which was the final product available on the Polish market under the name “Snail Eggs”. The gas chromatography method was used to determine the content of fatty acids.

Results

More than 75% of the studied fats were saturated fatty acids, dominated by palmitic and stearic acids. The average content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 0.37%, and it was a combination of two acids: linoleic (C18:2n6c), and its trans isomer (C18:2n6t). No significant differences were found comparing individual fatty acids content between the two species’ eggs as half-products, or between the half-products and the final product.

Conclusion

The fat in raw and processed eggs of common garden snails holds low nutritional value, and the processing did not affect the content of fatty acids.

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of this study was to present two outbreaks of bovine abortion due to Leptospira infection in cattle herds located in the northern part of Sicily (Italy). The animals were positive for Leptospira interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo in a microscopic agglutination test (MAT).

Material and Methods

A total of 23 Charolaise cows (farm A) and 75 Limousine bulls and Cinisara and Modicana cows (farm B) were enrolled in this study. The blood samples were collected from all subjects at the following time points: before a cycle of intramuscular treatment with oxytetracycline dihydrate (T0), after 5–6 weeks from the treatment (T1), and every 10 weeks until seronegativisation (T2 in Farm A and T3 in Farm B). A serological test (MAT) was used for the diagnosis of leptospirosis.

Results

Two samples from farm A (2/23) and 29 samples from farm B (29/75) were positive to Leptospira interrogans, serogroup Sejroe, serovar Hardjo in the MAT. Leptospira spp. DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the urine sample of one positive cow on farm A, and in placenta and brain samples belonging to one aborted foetus on farm B.

Conclusion

It is important to use serological and molecular diagnostic techniques complementarily to identify infected individuals.

Abstract

Based on analysis of available genome sequences, five gene lineages of MHC class I molecules (MHC I-U, -Z, -S, -L and -P) and one gene lineage of MHC class II molecules (MHC II-D) have been identified in Osteichthyes. In the latter lineage, three MHC II molecule sublineages have been identified (MHC II-A, -B and -E). As regards MHC class I molecules in Osteichthyes, it is important to take note of the fact that the lineages U and Z in MHC I genes have been identified in almost all fish species examined so far. Phylogenetic studies into MHC II molecule genes of sublineages A and B suggest that they may be descended from the genes of the sublineage named A/B that have been identified in spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus). The sublineage E genes of MHC II molecules, which represent the group of non-polymorphic genes with poor expression in the tissues connected with the immune system, are present in primitive fish, i.e. in paddlefish, sturgeons and spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), as well as in cyprinids (Cyprinidae), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Full elucidation of the details relating to the organisation and functioning of the particular components of the major histocompatibility complex in Osteichthyes can advance the understanding of the evolution of the MHC molecule genes and the immune mechanism.

Abstract

Introduction

Common parasites of the European bison include gastro-intestinal and pulmonary nematodes, liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica), tapeworms, and protozoa of the genus Coccidia. This study compared the extensiveness and intensities of European bison parasitic invasions in three north-eastern Polish forests in different seasons and queried the role of parasitological monitoring in sanitary and hygienic control of feeding places.

Material and Methods

Faecal samples were collected in the Białowieża, Knyszyńska, and Borecka Forests between 2014 and 2016, as were some from an area neighbouring the Białowieża Forest outside the Natura 2000 protected area. Parasites were detected in individual samples with the flotation, decanting and Baermann methods.

Results

The eggs of Trichostrongylidae, Aonchotheca sp., Nematodirus sp., Strongyloides spp., Trichuris sp., Moniezia spp., and Fasciola hepatica; the larvae of Dictyocaulus viviparus; and the oocytes of Eimeria spp. were identified. Significant variation in invasion intensity and diversity was seen by origin and season. The relationships were assessed first by univariable tests and next multivariately, when origin and season emerged as the major risk factors for exposure to most of the parasites.

Conclusion

The differences in the level of parasitic infection between the forests did not have implications for its sufficiency to cause clinical symptoms. However, the associations and risk factors found enable the necessary preventive measures to be taken to protect the E. bison from exposure or decrease the risks. Additionally, parasitological monitoring is appropriate as the method of sanitary and hygienic control of European bison winter feeding places. Threats to public health through adventitious invasions by zoonotic factors such as F. hepatica have been identified.

Abstract

Introduction

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) infection causes watery diarrhoea, vomiting, anorexia, and weight loss, especially among neonatal piglets, inflicting on them morbidity and mortality potentially reaching 90%–100%. Despite it being known that certain mammalian cell phases are arrested by PEDV, the mechanisms have not been elucidated, and PEDV pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study determined the effect of an epidemic PEDV strain on cell cycle progression.

Material and Methods

We observed the effect of the PEDV SHpd/2012 strain on an infected Vero cell cycle through flow cytometry and Western blot, investigating the interrelationships of cell-cycle arrest, the DNA damage–signalling pathway caused by PEDV and the phosphorylation levels of the key molecules Chk.2 and H2A.X involved upstream and downstream in this pathway.

Results

PEDV induced Vero cell-cycle arrest at the G1/G0 phase. The phosphorylation levels of Chk.2 and H2A.X increased with the prolongation of PEDV infection, and no significant cell-cycle arrest was observed after treatment with ATM or Chk.2 inhibitors. The proliferation of PEDV was also inhibited by treatment with ATM or Chk.2 inhibitors.

Conclusion

PEDV-induced cell-cycle arrest is associated with activation of DNA damage–signalling pathways. Our findings elucidate the molecular basis of PEDV replication and provide evidence to support further evaluation of PEDV pathogenesis.

Abstract

Introduction

The therapeutic effect of subcutaneous embedding and revascularisation on the repair of canine bone defects caused by open fracture was examined.

Material and Methods

A total of 12 adult beagle dogs were randomly split into a control group (group C) and a test group (group T). A section of the radius was removed from each dog under general anaesthesia and the deficit supported by an orthopaedic implant. Group T had the section surgically implanted next to the blood vessel–rich saphenous vein and Group C had it cryopreserved at −80°C. After eight weeks, the bone was surgically implanted back into the matching radial deficit. Bone healing was evaluated by gross morphological and X-ray examinations, post-mortem histology, and successive blood measurements of key bone biochemical markers.

Results

At 12 weeks, the bone healing boundary was disappearing more quickly in group T dogs than in their group C counterparts. X-ray and histological examinations showed that the cortical repair of group T subjects was complete and the bony plate arrangement was more regular than that in group C. The levels of bone biochemical markers also proved that the healing state of group T was better.

Conclusion

The results showed that the degree of healing, osteoclast activity, and bone formation status of group T were better than those of group C, proving that the vascularised bone graft had a significantly shorter healing time than the cryopreserved bone graft.

Abstract

The structure of the canine carpal joint is complex. This small joint consists of articulations that include the antebrachiocarpal, middle, carpometacarpal, and intercarpal joint surfaces. A large number of ligaments and tendons support and stabilise the carpus in dogs. Many injuries of this joint in dogs are not correctly recognised, diagnosed, or treated due to the limited use of diagnostic imaging methods. Radiography, the most common of them, has extensive application in diagnosing the causes of lameness in small animals. Other techniques, such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging visualise other joint structures and surrounding soft tissues. However, these imaging modalities are rarely used to diagnose diseases and injuries of the canine carpus at present. The main reason for this is the small amount of research carried out and the lack of a properly described methodology for the use of imaging techniques. The wide use of all diagnostic imaging tools in the diagnosis of diseases and injuries of the wrist joint in humans shows that conducting studies on dogs could expand current knowledge. The use of these techniques in veterinary medicine could facilitate diagnosis and subsequent therapy of carpal disorders in dogs. MRI is the most frequently used imaging method in human medicine for visualisation of abnormalities of joints. This method could become a valuable part of the detection of inflammatory, traumatic, and degenerative diseases of the carpal joint in dogs.

Abstract

Introduction

A research project is underway aiming to develop a field diagnostic tool for six important viruses of the pig sector, namely: African swine fever virus (ASFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus (PCV2), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV).

Material and Methods

To obtain a preliminary sounding of the interest in this type of instrument among its potential operators, a questionnaire was drawn up and submitted to three categories of stakeholders: farmers, veterinarians, and others (including scientific and technical staff working on animal farms). Four countries participated: Italy, Greece, Hungary, and Poland.

Results

In total, 83 replies were collected and analysed in a breakdown by stakeholder type and pertinence, where the areas were the importance of the main diseases within the different countries, diagnostic tool operational issues, and economic issues.

Conclusion

The main end-users of this kind of instrument are expected to be private veterinarians and pig producers. The infectious agents seeming to be most interesting to diagnose with the instrument are PRRSV, SIV, PPV, and PCV2. The most decisive parameters which have been selected by the stakeholders are sensitivity, cost, simplicity, and time required to obtain results. The economic issue analysis showed that the majority of those who would prefer to buy rather than rent the device are willing to pay up to €3,000 for a diagnostic field tool.