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Introduction: Combretum species has been utilised for decades in African indigenous medical practices for the treatment of several parasitic infections.

Objectives: This study aims at investigating the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal properties of Combretum racemosum, Combretum platypterum and Combretum zenkeri.

Methods: The leaf extracts of the plants were screened against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum using Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay; promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania donovani; and Trypanosoma brucei brucei using Alamar Blue assay. Cytotoxicity screening were also carried out on African green monkey kidney cell line (Vero) and human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cell lines.

Results: C. racemosum was active against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of P. falciparum (IC50 of 25.6 and 26.7 µg/ml, respectively) and exerted significant antiprotozoal activities against T. brucei brucei (IC50 = 18.44 µg/ml). The extract of C. platypterum displayed a slightly lower antiplasmodial activity when compared to C. racemosum, while C. zenkeri was inactive against the parasites. In addition, the extracts failed to display significant inhibitory activity on the proliferation of L. donovani.

Conclusions: This study supports the ethnomedicinal use of C. racemosum. Further research needs to be carried out to identify the antiprotozoal compounds in C. racemosum, as this could be explored for possible antiprotozoal drug development.


Introduction: Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium (L.) Holub) is a common weed growing on meadows, roadside and agricultural wasteland, creating vast, rapidly spreading fields.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts from fresh fireweed, harvested at three ripening stages.

Methods: Analysis of antioxidative activity was carried out by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. Total polyphenol and total flavonoid content were also determined. Plant material was extracted using ultra-sound-assisted green extraction technique with methanol, ethanol and isopropanol at different concentrations and water.

Results: The highest antioxidant activity evaluated by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP was found for the extracts prepared in 70% ethanol. The highest content of total polyphenols were observed in extracts in 70% ethanol, whereas the highest content of flavonoids extracts in undiluted methanol.

Conclusion: Epilobium angustifolium harvested at fruit ripening stage seems to be a valuable source of antioxidants.


Introduction: Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. is an annual plant with small flowers in yellow and claret. In dyeing process, a whole range of colours can be obtained using various methods.

Objective: The aim of the study was to present a wide range of colors of the little-known plant C. tinctoria. and its health promoting properties.

Methods: In our research, we selected 3 types of wool: Polish Merino, Żelaźnieńska, and Polish Lowland Sheep and compared the colours obtained on these wools using 6 dyeing methods.

Results: The results indicate that the basic colour of wool influences the intensity of colour after dyeing as well as the type of the used mordant, which determines the obtained colour. A whole range of very intense colours was obtained from very small flowers of C. tinctoria.

Conclusions: Flowers are a very good and efficient raw material that gives intense colors on wool. An additional advantage is the plant's health-promoting properties. The plant is still little explored in this respect.


Introduction: Plants are a rich source of healing substances. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide while breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are potential founder cells for metastasis. Therefore, their assessment may be used for monitoring of treatment as well as detecting cancer metastatis. Hence, it is suggested that the number of CTCs may be a valuable tumour biomarker during therapy.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to detect CTCs in breast cancer and to validate the method of assessment of CTC count using CytoTrack CT11 technology.

Methods: MCF-7 cells were sorted by a FACSARIA flow cytometer from blood samples derived from patients who have not been diagnosed with cancer. Identification and quantitative assessment of MCF-7 cells in blood samples were determined by flow sorting. Then, blood samples containing MCF-7 cells or without MCF-7 were scanned with the use of an automated fluorescence scanning microscope.

Results: In in vitro model analysing the glass CytoDisc™ with stained MCF-7 cells, we noted the correlation between the amount of observed tumour cells and expected number of tumour cells. Moreover, coefficient of variation in case of the recovery rate of the assumed number of MCF-7 cells was 30%, 17%, 18% and 15%, respectively.

Conclusion: Our study suggest that CTCs could be predictive factor in patients with metastatic cancer especially in breast cancer.


Objective: Chamomile plants (Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch) are often attacked by pests, which usually cause the decrease of raw material yield and its quality. The objects of field trial were two chamomile cultivars: Złoty Łan (4n) and Promyk (2n) cultivated under organic regime. The aim of this study was to evaluate of impact of the spinosad treatment and its time of application on two chamomile cultivars: cv. Promyk – 2n and cv. Złoty Łan – 4n exposed to insect pests.

Methods: The first treatment with spinosad as a preventative control (P) was performed in the early phase of plant development (seven leaves). Intervention (I) treatment was made in green bud phase. In both terms of observation insect pests were observed and collected. In each spraying application of 0.06 g of spinosad per 1 liter of water was used.

Results: Spinosad was able to limit the number of pest population and finally increased yielding of the treated cultivars as compared to the untreated plants. Time of spinosad application for cv. Złoty Łan plants was not statistically siginificant, although was more effective for the preventative treatment of cv. Promyk in the increasing of the plant biomass (283.8 g · m−2) and seed (32 g · m−2) yields than intervention.

Conclusion: Protection treatment with spinosad might be recommended in chamomile cultivation and it is more effective than intervention in diploid cultivar which begin blooming earlier than tetraploid. Essential oil content was not related with protection treatment for diploid cultivar, although intervention in tetraploid cultivar caused higher content of oil.


Introduction: Murraya koenigii L. and Ficus carica L. have been traditionally used in folk medicine for treating several diseases.

Objective: The present study was proposed to investigate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant potential of hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of M. koenigii and dried fruits of F. carica.

Methods: Phytochemical screening was performed using different methods and antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, reducing power assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical-scavenging activity.

Results: The results showed that the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of M. koenigii and dried fruits of F. carica possess a significant quantity of flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids (9.0%, 0.9%, 0.6% and 7.3%, 8.7%, 0.44%, respectively) and also possess a significant antioxidant activity as evaluated by employing different antioxidant assays.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of M. koenigii and dried fruits of F. carica exhibit significant antioxidant activity.


Introduction: Nowadays, many synthetic drugs comes with various degrees of side effects, accumulative toxicity and development of resistance by microorganisms. Medicinal plants used worldwide can be developed into modern drugs with little or no side effects and greater efficacy.

Objective: The aim of this paper was to document the alternative therapy used in Dutsin-Ma local community in Katsina state, Nigeria.

Methods: Ethnobotanical survey was carried out among 40 traditional herbalists. Out of 106 plants found, screening was conducted to include only plants that are prescribed simultaneously by the entire herbalists.

Results: We have found 32 species of medicinal plants from 20 families that are used for management and alternative therapy against common ailments such as malaria, diabetes, sickle cell anaemia, hypertension, ulcer, paralysis, typhoid fever and immune deficiency.

Conclusion: Traditional medicinal plants provide the alternative therapy for treatment and management of diseases to significant number of people. Herbal practitioners are still relevant to African healthcare system.


The medicinal and culinary properties of Angelica archangelica L. have been known and valued since the Middle Ages. Ingredients of essential oil and coumarins found in this plant are to a large degree responsible for its pharmacological activity. This study is a review of the literature of the most important biologically active compounds present in herbal raw materials: root (rhizome with roots) and angelica fruits. Research shows that the content of individual compounds of the essential oil and coumarin fraction is variable, which may point to a large intraspecific variation. Therefore, these compounds may be good markers for identifying taxa or chemotypes in chemotaxonomic research valuable for the herbal medicine and pharmaceutical industry.


Introduction: Chemical industry is obligatory to improve new chemically effective components. Spices are potential new antimicrobials.

Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of fifty aromatic spices and medicinal herbs obtained from Turkey.

Material and methods: In vitro antibacterial activities of a total of fifty acetone extracts from aromatic spices and medicinal herbs were studied by disc diffusion and agar diffusion method. The extracts were tested against three Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus), four Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans).

Results: The highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the extract of Alpinia officinarum against Salmonella typhimurium and Cassia angustifolia against Bacillus cereus. Many of the extracts showed minimum inhibition concentration at even lowest dose.

Conclusion: The obtained results showed that aromatic spices and medicinal herbs may be used as natural antimicrobials against diseases.


Introduction: Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is a common plant in Europe, with many beneficial health effects. In addition to the use in brewing, hops are a valuable source of active substances used in conventional and folk medicine, such as humulones and lupulones, as well as antioxidants, including phenolic compounds.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the antioxidant activity of alcoholic extracts of fresh hop leaves collected in 2017 and 2018.

Material and methods: The raw material consisting of fresh hop leaves was extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction. Methyl, ethyl and isopropyl alcohol at three concentrations were used as extractants. The antioxidant activity of extracts was determined using DPPH and FRAP methods. Total phenolic content was evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique.

Results: All the extracts showed antioxidant potential as well as the phenolic content. Regardless of the harvesting year and methods of evaluation, the highest antioxidant activity and the total polyphenol content were observed for extracts prepared in undiluted methanol, obtained during one hour lasting extraction.

Conclusion: The results of the studies have suggested that hop leaves can be a potential source of health-promoting antioxidants.