The impact of regulated drip-irrigation on productivity and fruit quality of tomato ‘Tofane’ has been studied under a warm dry desert climate in southern Algeria. Yield, fruit weight and size, water content and parameters of fruit quality – total soluble solids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, vitamin C, pH and titratable acidity were determined. Two irrigation treatments were applied in 2012 and 2013: T1, optimal irrigation (100% evapotranspiration – ETc) during the whole growth period (growth stages I, II and III); T2, optimal irrigation during I and II stages, and regulated deficit irrigation (67% ETc) during stage III (from fruit set to full fruit maturity of first and second bunch). T1 treatment during the whole season showed the highest values of soil water potential (Ψsoil), between −0.02 MPa and −0.06 MPa, on depths of 0.3 and 0.6 m, respectively. During stage III, regulated deficit irrigation caused the lowest Ψsoil values, which were between −0.1 MPa and −0.12 MPa on a soil depth of 0.3 and 0.6 m, respectively. Deficit irrigation caused significant decrease of water content in fruits and not significant decrease of fruit weight and size, as well as fruit yield while water saving for irrigation amounted to 10%. Comfort-irrigated tomato plants produced fruits containing significantly higher titratable acidity, total soluble solids and vit. C content. There was a tendency to decrease carotenoid content and increase phenolic content in both years of the study. Due to the possibility of water saving with not significant yield decrease, it seems that the reduction of water use in growth stage III would be an adequate strategy for tomato cultivation in hot, dry climate.
A total of 558 specimens of black-bellied anglerfish Lophius budegassa (Spinola, 1807) were collected by the vessels engaged in commercial trawl fishing in the Central Aegean Sea between September 2017 and August 2018 in order to determine age and growth. Ageing was based on growth ring counts of transverse sections of the illicium (first ray of the dorsal fin). By reading the illicium, individuals were found within II-XI age groups. Total lengths and weights ranged between 12.0 – 65.0 cm and 24.5 – 4682.0 g, respectively. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated for males, females and combined sexes of L. budegassa. The results are compared with previous studies.
There is a significant lack of data for the biological parameters of beluga or great sturgeon, the largest fish in the Caspian Sea. The age, growth and fisheries indices for the stock status of beluga was investigated in the south Caspian Basin of Iran between 1990 and 2011. Fork lengths ranged between 113-420 cm and weights from 8.0 to 725.0 kg. The growth parameters were L∞ = 440 cm, K = 0.027 year−1, t0 = − 5.8 years. The age at first capture (tc) was 13.1 years. The long-term age composition data showed age up to 63 years, and the ages 12-19 years comprised 76.7% of the total catch. The generation length was 33 years. The values of “KF” were close to 1 or >1, indicating that beluga sturgeon is in a favorable condition in the southern Caspian Sea. The length distribution showed that 24.2% of the catch is comprised of juveniles. Based on the age structure and age at first maturity, recruitment and growth overfishing occurred in beluga stocks. Therefore, increased length or age at first capture in future fishery policies should be implemented. The mega-spawners represented 4.4% of the fish captured and revealed an unhealthy population structure.
This study investigated the efficacy of Tamarind Leaves (TL) and Mango Leaves (ML) with Oxytetracycline (OXY) on growth performance, haematoimmunological and disease resistance of Clarias gariepinus juveniles against Aeromonas hydrophila. Experimental diets consist of control (0%), TL2 (1%), TL3 (2%), ML4 (1%), ML5 (2%), OXY6 (30mg/kg diet), (TL+ML) 7, (TL+OXY) 8, (ML+OXY) 9 and (TL+ML+OXY) 10. The fish (3.02±0.01g) were replicated twice with 20 fish per replicate and were fed twice daily at 3% body weight of 40% crude protein for twelve weeks (8 weeks for feeding trial and 4 weeks for challenge test). Mean Weight Gain (MWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb), Lymphocytes (LYM), Globulin (GLO), Amino Alanine Transferase (ALT) and Aspertate Amino Transferase (AST) contents were ascertained using standard technique. The fish were infected with A. hydrophila at 5.94 log10 CFU/ml interperitoneally and fed different diets to evaluate their Relative Percent of Survival (RPS). Data was subjected to descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance at P=0.05. Clarias gariepinus juveniles fed treated diets had higher growth rates than the control diet but C. gariepinus fed (TL+ML+OXY) 10 had a significantly higher MWG and SGR of 7.74±0.69 g and 0.97±0.01 g, respectively. The PCV (44.0±2.00%), Hb (14.7±2.00 g/dl), LYM (37.0±2.00), GLO (42.0 ±2.00 g/dl) were higher in the C. gariepinus fed (TL+ML+OXY) 10 than the control diet. The AST and ALT values among the treated groups were lower than the values in the control at the post-challenge test. The RPS against A. hydrophila was higher in the treated groups (100%) than in the control (0%). Fish fed tamarind and mango leaves had enhanced mean weight gain and were more resistant to A. hydrophila infection.
Loss of fish biodiversity, especially in the inland and coastal areas, is a major concern in sustainable fish production. Indiscriminate fish catch, climate change and many other anthropogenic activities synergistically affect fish biodiversity. To formulate a sustainable fish biodiversity conservation plan, fish biodiversity in the Andharmanik River, a 40-km-long Hilsa shad sanctuary in the southern part of Bangladesh, was assessed. The study was conducted to understand the status of fish species diversity through sampling in three sampling stations between December 2014 and November 2015. A total of 93 fish species were found belonging to 66 genera, 45 families and 14 orders. Perciformes (27.65%) was found to be the most dominant order, followed by Cypriniformes (20.21%), Siluriformes (21.28%) Clupeiformes (7.45%) Mastacembeliformes (4.26%) and Channiformes (4.26%). Out of the 93 fish species of the river, the percentage compositions of the vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered and not threatened were found to be 14%, 11%, 6% and 59%, respectively. Four population indices viz. Shannon-Wiener’s diversity index (H), Simpson’s dominance index (D), Simpson’s index of diversity (1-D) and Margalef’s index (d) were applied to demonstrate species diversity, richness and evenness of fish species in sampling areas, and the overall values of the indices were 2.70-3.51, 0.10-0.12, 0.88-0.90 and 7.84-8.19, respectively. The main threats to fish biodiversity were reviewed and the measures for fish biodiversity conservation of the river recommended. Indiscriminate fishing using biodiversity destructive gears, as well as losing hydrological and ecological connectivity with the surrounding habitats, were identified as major threats to biodiversity in the Andharmanik River. Effective sanctuary-based co-management, immediate actions for habitat enhancement to conserve and improve fish biodiversity in the river were recommended. Necessary steps to improve hydrological and ecological connectivity for habitat protection and elimination of all destructive fishing gears in order to conserve biodiversity in the Andharmanik River were also suggested.
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of bluefin tuna, with special regard to its farming challenges. Tuna is one of the most prominent species in fisheries worldwide. The high market value of tuna stocks has led to intensified fishing pressure that resulted in drastic population reductions in every ocean where these fish are found. It is very difficult to obtain the necessary data for the appropriate stock assessment analysis, and there is a very high degree of uncertainty in the models used to evaluate Atlantic bluefin tuna stocks. Tuna-farming could help reduce pressure on the tuna population, but the problem is that the majority of cage-farmed fish is caught in its natural environment (wild population), and thus is fattened or farmed to a certain size. Additionally, the challenges in tuna farming are numerous. Tuna is a fast swimmer, a large energy and oxygen consumer, therefore consuming a large portion of available food to maintain its metabolism. However, due to its delicious taste, high market price and a large demand for this species, pressure will probably continue to grow in the future. Therefore intensive farming, which implies the full breeding cycle in captivity, remains one of the possible solutions that could help reduce the pressure on the tuna population.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of algal oil with very high level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) used as fat source in the diet for laying hens, on egg yolk lipids fatty acid composition, as well as egg production and egg quality indices, in comparison with other dietary fat sources. The experiment was carried out on 168 ISA Brown hens (25 to 60 wks of age), allocated to 7 groups of 12 replicates (cages), with two birds in each cage. The experimental diets were supplemented with 2% of different fat sources, i.e. soybean oil (SO), coconut oil (CO), rapeseed oil (RO), linseed oil (LO), camelina oil (CAO), fish oil (FO), or algal oil (AO). Laying performance indices, i.e. egg production, mean egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or egg and eggshell quality parameters were not affected by used fat sources (P>0.05). Dietary fat sources significantly influenced on egg yolk lipids fatty acids composition. Thus, AO addition caused some changes in the yolk lipid profile that were favorable from the dietary perspective, i.e., increased concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (P<0.05). However, boiled eggs from hens fed a diet with AO were characterized by an inferior flavour and taste to those from other groups. In conclusion, the results of this experiment, have shown that the use of AO in the laying hens nutrition is an efficient way to increase the deposition of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) in eggs, without negative effect on egg performance, however further researches, aiming to establish optimal AO dietary level that does not adversely affect the organoleptic properties of eggs, are needed.
The knowledge of the existing levels and the interrelationships between various blood and milk parameters is very useful for the analysis and monitoring of homeostasis high-yielding dairy cows. The aim of the study was to evaluate these values and correlations for selected blood markers of liver function aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, albumin, glucose, cholesterol) and selected milk parameters: somatic cell count (SCC), colony-forming units (CFU), fat, protein, lactose, dry matter (DM), fat-free dry matter (FDM), and milk production in cows during late lactation period. At the same time blood and milk samples were collected from 11 clinically healthy milking cows in later lactation period. The 11 selected cows were examined once a day for 3 days resulting in 33 sets of blood and milk samples for laboratory and statistical analysis. Significant positive correlations were observed between: ALT and albumin, ALT and cholesterol, GGT and glucose, albumin and cholesterol, CFU and fat, CFU and DM, SCC and protein, fat and DM, protein and FDM, lactose and FDM, GPT and FDM, albumin and protein, albumin and FDM, glucose and fat, as well as significant negative correlations between: AST and ALT, AST and GGT, AST and albumin, CFU and lactose, fat and lactose, fat and FDM, lactose and DM, DM and FDM, AST and SCC, AST and protein, AST and FDM, ALT and fat, ALT and DM, glucose and DM, cholesterol and CFU. The results obtained may be important for detecting of different biochemical pathways and helpful in estimating, predicting or determining trends, the direction of changes in liver functions and assessing the risk of alert levels for liver blood markers, when only daily results of milk parameters are available.
The aim of the study was to determine meat quality in cockerels of two multipurpose breeds reared to different ages. The study involved 30 cockerels each of two native breeds: Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) and Rhode Island Red (R-11). The results showed that cockerels of the native breeds Rhode Island Red (R-11) and Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) represent a good starting material for niche production of poultry meat R-11 cockerels exhibited a better rate of weight gain and their carcasses had higher yellowness and redness values compared to Ż-33 birds. The carcasses of both cockerel breeds had lower breast and higher leg muscle percentage, and their meat contained more collagen and protein and less fat. As birds aged, body weight and abdominal fat percentage increased, and giblets percentage decreased in the cockerels of both breeds, whereas in the R-11 breed dressing percentage increased, leg bone percentage decreased, yellowness (a*) increased and redness (b*) decreased. Neither genotype nor slaughter age had a significant effect on chemical composition of the breast and leg muscles. In both breeds, the breast and leg muscle quality traits were more affected by age than genotype.
Increased interest in the production of rabbit meat justifies the need to assess and improve the welfare of these animals not only during the production cycle but also at slaughter. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different stunning methods on the level of blood biochemical parameters (stress indicators), and meat quality of slaughter rabbits. Rabbits of the Hycole line (n = 60), were subjected to the following stunning methods: mechanical with a non-penetrating captive bolt (group I; n = 20), mechanical by hitting a narrow rod on the head (group II; n = 20), and electrical stunning (n = 20). In the stunning groups there were no differences found in the blood level of insulin, cortisol, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, and protein content (P>0.05). The stunning method did not affect the pH of rabbit meat (P=0.768), but significantly influenced the L* and b* colour parameters. The muscles of longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from group of rabbits mechanically stunned by hitting a narrow rod on the head, were the darkest (L * = 58.4), with the lowest yellowness values (b* = 4.04). The meat of electrically stunned rabbits was characterised by higher drip loss (P<0.001), lower plasticity (P=0.043), and higher free water content (P=0.043). From the analysed texture measures, only the Warner Bratzler Shear Energy values of the cooked meat were affected by the stunning method. These values were higher in the meat of the mechanically stunned groups compared to the electrically stunned rabbits (P=0.042). The percentage of dry matter, crude protein, extractable fat and water to protein ratio, were affected only by the muscle type (P<0.001). To conclude, the rabbit meat was characterised by good quality, with only slight differences between the groups. No differences were found in the stress reaction of rabbits subjected to the examined stunning methods.