Thrips tabaci Lindeman is a cosmopolitan and polyphagous insect pest. It is known worldwide and recorded on more than 300 plant species. T. tabaci is a key pest of onion and several other crops, and its control is vital to the production and profitability of crops. If onion thrips population is not controlled, damage can reduce yield volume and quality. In addition to direct damage to the host plants, T. tabaci has been characterized as an asymptomatic vector of three devastating tospovirus species, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus, Iris yellow spot virus, and Tomato yellow ring virus. For this reason, several synthetic insecticides were used for control. However, these insecticides bring unwanted effects, like pesticide resistance, elimination of nontarget species, environmental pollution, and threats to human health. To solve the negative consequences of insecticides, biopesticides, such as plant secondary metabolites, entomopathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes, have been recognized as effective alternatives. The use of plant-based insecticides and entomopathogenic control methods gained more attention in integrated pest management. Their strong side is lack of residues, saving beneficial insects and minimizing air and water pollution. Plant-derived compounds and entomopathogenic biological control agents offered a variety of biological modes of actions against onion thrips, such as repellency, feeding deterrence, anti-oviposition, fecundity deterrence, metamorphosis inhibition, and parasiting the host’s body.
Origanum vulgare L. is an aromatic enduring herb that belongs to Lamiaceae family. The bioactive constituents of this herb, such as carvacrol and thymol possess several medicinal properties, such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic, anti-neoplastic, and immune modulatory. Moreover, it is considered a standard natural, less toxic, and residue free feed additive, that is successfully used in livestock and fish. Additionally, in human, Origanum vulgare is extensively used with promising health benefits against respiratory, digestive and urinary disorders. This review casts light on description, chemical composition and structure of Origanum vulgare, as well as its therapeutic applications in human and its biological activities in ruminants and fish, data that will be possibly useful for physiologists, nutritionists and veterinarians.
Animal health and welfare can be assessed using biochemical and haematological markers of the blood. The values of these parameters depend in part on the quantity and quality of feed ingredients, i.e. feed protein and feed additives. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of including fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) in dry feeding system on haematological and biochemical blood parameters of sows and piglets. The experimental material comprised 30 primiparous gilts and 30 multiparous sows after their second lactation. They were randomly divided into two groups of equal size – control and experimental. The animals in control groups CG (15 gilts) and CS (15 sows) received a standard diet for pregnant or lactating sows, depending on the reproductive period. Experimental groups EG and ES were 15 gilts and 15 multiparous sows, respectively, receiving feed with a 4% share of FRSM in place of soybean meal up to 100 d of gestation. In addition, from 100 d of gestation to 7 d of lactation, the sows in these groups received feed with a 9% share of FRSM, and then again a diet with a 4% share of FRSM until the end of lactation. Blood samples were taken from 6 animals from each group in two periods: at 100 days of pregnancy (late pregnancy) and at 27 days of lactation (late lactation). Blood from piglets was taken at 27 days of age (before weaning), from two piglets from each sow (one gilt and one barrow), taking into account the average body weight in the litter. Haematological parameters: Ht, Hb and RBC were determined in whole blood. The plasma content of minerals, activity of selected enzymes and biochemical parameters of sows, gilts and piglets were determined. The diet containing fermented rapeseed meal, fed to pregnant and lactating sows, increased the level of Ht and Hb and RBC content and mineral content (phosphorus, calcium and iron) in the plasma. This effect was mainly observed in primiparous sows. The inclusion of FRSM in the diet of sows reduced the plasma content of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols in sows and piglets, as well as liver enzyme activity, particularly AST in piglets. The use of fermented rapeseed meal in sow diet resulted in better use of mineral compounds, improvement of production effects and health parameters of sow and piglet blood.
The aim of the study was to discuss breeding of pigs of the Puławska breed, which is included in a Genetic Resources Conservation Programme, and to analyse performance parameters that are useful in domestic pig production. The Puławska breed is the oldest native breed of pig in Poland. Since 1996 it has been protected by a genetic resources conservation programme, owing to breeding traditions and the production traits characteristic of the breed. The use value of these pigs is currently at the level of maternal breeds: number of live piglets born per litter – 10.54; number of piglets reared per litter – 9.37; daily weight gains – 569 g for breeding boars and 562 g for breeding gilts; meat content – 54.6% for breeding boars and 54.9% for breeding gilts. An important element in favour of the use of this breed in domestic production of fresh pork and pork products is its meat quality parameters. The mean values for physical traits (WHC 22.42%, pH45 6.47, pH24 5.63) and chemical parameters (protein 22.70%, fat 2.65%) are characteristic of meat of normal quality. The Puławska breed can be used to produce high-quality fresh meat and meat products, including traditional and regional ones. Puławska pigs are bred and reared according to the principles of sustainable agriculture, which reduces the negative impact of pig production on the natural environment.
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of replacing soybean meal with 5% of raw soybean seeds on the growth, feed consumption and utilization of growing pigs, also the carcass and pork quality. The growth experiment was conducted on 120 pigs of approx. 18.5 kg allocated to two dietary treatments. The animals from the control treatment (CON) were offered a diet with soybean meal, and the experimental group (EXP) was given 5% raw soybean seeds (NON-GMO, Augusta var.) instead of SBM. The experiment lasted 88 days. After the experiment, eight pigs from each group were euthanized and meat samples were collected. No diet effects on the animals’ performance and carcass quality were observed (P>0.05). The experimental diet affected (P<0.05) meat color, and also meat composition (higher water content and lower intramuscular fat content). The composition of fatty acids in the meat did not differ significantly, except for higher C16:1 content in the EXP group. The introduction of 5% raw soybean seeds into the diets did not impact animal performance, but it reduced some indices of the pork quality.
The purpose of this research was to compare the physicochemical and sensorial properties of from-age frais-type cheese produced from milk of different cow breeds. There is no information on this topic in literature. The cheeses were manufactured in laboratory conditions during summer in three independent series from milk of the Polish Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White (HO), Polish Holstein-Friesian Red-and-White (RW) and Polish Red (RP) cows. The milk, whey and cheeses were analysed for chemical composition and physicochemical properties. Moreover, sensory analysis, TPA, protein fractions by SDS PAGE and fatty acid profile by GC were determined in cheeses. A one-way ANOVA was employed and the significance of differences between the means was established using the Duncan’s test. The cheeses were found to have a similar acidity and basic chemical composition (P≥0.05), with the exception of fat in dry matter concentration, which was greater in RW than HO cheese (P<0.05). The sensory evaluation of fromage frais-type cheeses revealed that they differed only in smell which gained a better score in RP than HO cheese (P<0.05). However, texture analysis showed a significant difference in the hardness and chewiness between cheeses which were the greatest in HO cheese (P<0.05). The RW cheeses were characterised by a greater proportion of whey proteins, trans-vaccenic acid, cis-9, trans-11-linoleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05) than the HO ones. The cheeses from the RP milk gave the greatest yield. In conclusion, the most beneficial raw material for fromage frais-type cheese manufacture is the RW milk.
Sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta) is a species for which effective methods of rearing are still being developed. They need high-quality protein in their diet, but, considering the ecological consequences of fishmeal production, new sources of protein are needed. Presently, insect meal is one of the most promising alternative sources of protein in the diets of farm animals. Insect production does not result in excessive gas emissions, waste generation or the risk of obtaining low-quality dietary protein. The study on sea trout larvae was carried out for 60 days. Four diets were given to the fish: one control (C), without the inclusion of insect meal, and three experimental, with one unhydrolysed Tenebrio molitor meal (TM) and two hydrolysed Tenebrio molitor meal treatments. The effects of the diets were evaluated on the basis of growth performance (weight and length of the fish, SR, SGR, RGR, FCR and PER), somatic indices (HSI and VSI) and fish condition (CF). We observed that the highest body mass and weight gain were obtained in the control group. However, the lowest mortality and the highest values of RGR were observed only in groups fed diets containing mealworm meal. The results for the hepato- and viscerosomatic indices showed a lack of statistically significant differences between the control group and the unhydrolysed Tenebrio molitor meal group in terms of the enzymatic activities of amylase, lipase and trypsin in the fish intestine and both aminotransferases in the liver. Our study demonstrated that the inclusion of 20% mealworm meal in practical diets for sea trout did not negatively affect growth performance or gastrointestinal tract (GIT) enzyme activity. The hydrolysed mealworm meal and the non-processed mealworm meal had similar effects.
The present study evaluates the effects of natural extracts on reproductive performance, haematochemical parameters, and antioxidant status of rabbit does. A total of sixty New Zealand White second parity does were divided into three groups: the first group was fed a control diet (CON), the second (T1) and the third groups (T2) were fed the same diet supplemented with prebiotic polysaccharides from brown seaweeds (Laminaria spp.) plus phenolic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, tannins, and flavonoids from plant extracts (0.3% and 0.6%, respectively). The trial was conducted for two consecutive reproductive cycles (75 days). Reproductive performance was recorded. Blood samples were collected before the first insemination, 10 d after the first kindling, and 10 d after the second one. At the first reproductive cycle, productive parameters were negatively affected (P<0.05) by a high dosage of the dietary supplement (T2 group). At the second reproductive cycle, no differences (P>0.05) between dietary treatments on reproductive and productive performances were observed. Bilirubin was affected by dietary treatment (P<0.001) and decreased in relation to sampling time (P<0.001). The HDL cholesterol decreased by dietary treatment (P<0.01). All the plasma antioxidant markers were positively affected (P<0.001) by dietary supplementation and sampling time. No previous study has reported the effects of brown seaweeds and polyphenols on rabbit does and the present data shows that this natural extract supplement improved the antioxidant status of rabbit does.
The aim of the study was to determine whether feeding rats a diet without added Cu increases oxidation of macromolecules in tissues, as well as epigenetic changes in the brain. The rats were divided into two groups: the Cu-6.5 group which was fed a diet with a standard content of Cu in mineral mixture – 6.5 mg Cu from CuCO3 per kg of diet; and the Cu-0 group which was fed a diet with a mineral mix without Cu supplementation. At the end of the experiment the rats were weighed and blood samples were collected. Finally, the rats were euthanized and then the liver, small intestine, spleen, kidneys, heart, brain, lung, testes and leg muscles were removed and weighed. In the blood of Cu-0 rats the lower Cp activity and greater GPx and CAT activity than in Cu-6.5 rats were noticed. In the liver, lungs, heart and testes of Cu-0 rats, a decreased content of Cu were noticed. Application of Cu-0 diets resulted in increased LOOH level in the small intestine, liver, and heart, as well as increased MDA content in the liver, spleen, lungs, brain and testes. The Cu-0 treatment caused a decrease in SOD activity in the heart, lungs and testes of the rats and a decrease in CAT activity in the small intestine. In the brain and testes of rats from the Cu-0 treatment, lower content of GSH + GSSG was observed. The brain of rats from the Cu-0 treatment showed an increase in the level of PCs, 8-OHdG, Casp 8 and DNA methylation. The research has shown that a deficiency of Cu in the diet impairs the body’s antioxidant defences, which in turn leads to increased lipid oxidation in the liver, small intestinal wall, heart, spleen, lungs, brain and testes, as well as to oxidation of proteins and DNA in the brain. A deficiency of Cu in the diet also increases methylation of cytosine in the brain.
The aim of the study was to determine whether replacing soybean meal with 3% or 6% fermented soybean meal would positively affect blood metabolites and redox status of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 600 broiler chickens assigned to three experimental groups of 200 chickens each (10 replications of 20 individuals each). In the control group, soybean meal (SBM) was the main source of dietary protein, whereas the remaining groups were fed diets in which soybean meal was partially replaced with 3% or 6% fermented soybean meal (FSBM-3%, FSBM-6%). The fermentation of the SBM contributed to an increase of Lactobacillus, content of crude protein, methionine and lysine, and especially over a 30-fold increase in the concentration of lactic acid. The inclusion of 3% or 6% share of FSBM in the diet of chickens contributed to an increase in total antioxidant potential (FRAP) and plasma total glutathione content. In blood of chickens receiving FSBM an increase of total protein and HDL cholesterol content, aspartate aminotransferase activity and a decrease in urea content were noted. In addition to the positive effect on protein and lipid metabolism as well as antioxidant defence, the diet with a 6% share of FSBM improved body weight gain of chickens. In conclusion, it can be suggested that introducing 6% share of FSBM in place of FSM is more justified.