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The purpose of the paper is to describe the results of the theoretical and empirical study of the mental and emotional state assessment of university students in the examination situation. The dependence of students’ mental and emotional state during the examination on personal traits, students’ self-assessment, as well as the specificity of their mental and emotional state with different levels of examination anxiety are discussed.

Materials and methods: In our research we used the following methods: Cattell’s 16-factor personality questionnaire, modified version of Max Luscher’s eight-color test – colors choice method (CChM), express test ‘The diagnostics of the examination anxiety’. The sample consisted of 72 first-year full-time students of the specialty ‘pedagogical education’. Age of the students is 17-18 years old. Methods of mathematical statistics are used to estimate data.

Research results: The data of the empirical research of the students’ mental and emotional state have revealed the negative impact of the examination situation on the students’ mental and emotional state. The level of examination anxiety, formed in response to a threatening situation, is determined by a set of the students’ personality traits. It has been established that the lower the person’s self-assessment is, the higher the level of students’ examination anxiety. For students with average data of personal anxiety, the state of stress and exam stress has appeared to be tonic, what allows to keep a sufficient level of ability to work and achieve good learning outcomes.

Discussion: The results of the research indicate that the assessment of the mental and emotional state of students in the examination situation will allow predicting human behavior in stressful situations, preventing the adverse impact of negative factors on human activity, and also will become the key to the developing a strategy for maintaining students’ psychological health.


The аim is to study family influence on formation of eating and weight disorders. The concept of an “alimentary family” is defined as a family with dysfunctional, disharmonious relationships, which is a prerequisite for emergence and support of distorted patterns of eating behaviour, leading in the future to children’s eating and weight disorders.

Methods: The research was carried out using the method of a thematic retrospective analysis (MTRA)-food, which is a variant of the narrative method, the questionnaire “Parental convictions and control tactics as for eating behaviour of their children during food taking”. The data was processed by the content analysis method; Fisher’s φ-criterion was used to compare differences between the groups.

Results: The research has allowed us to clarify eating behavioural characteristics and to identify the “roots” of eating disorders. Various forms of forcing at eating, direct and indirect ways of making children to eat or blocking of eating are manifested in ignoring of children’s taste preferences, their desire and readiness to eat. Parents often use manipulative techniques influencing children’s eating behaviour (encouragement, inducement, reward promises, approval, recognition, warning, or switching attention), direct means of influence (coercion: prohibition, restriction, rejection, destructive criticism, intimidation, deprivation from various pleasures). There is the statistical confirmation that parents’ use of manipulative means and / or direct coercion towards their children during eating predetermines formation of pathological processes of corporeality, attitudes and psychological mechanisms stipulating eating disorders.

Conclusions: The research results indicate necessity to develop psychotherapeutic programs for people with eating disorders, as well as programs to help parents improve family relationships and, accordingly, to apply correctional effects on their children.


The issue of parental neglect is a constantly topical one. Neglect is not only the lack of satisfying basic needs, but also the lack of ensuring a sense of security, belonging, and insufficient physical, emotional or verbal closeness with the child. Poor parental care, lack of a sense of closeness and availability of the parent, along with other environmental factors (e.g. addictions, diseases and mental disorders in the family) result in abnormal formation of the child’s personality, and can also be associated with depression, anxiety, self-harm or suicide attempts.

The aim of the study was to present the clinical cases of two teenage patients (AA. – 13 years old, BB. – 16 years old) staying in the I Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention in Lublin (Department for Children and Youth), whose mental health problems were caused by a constant neglect on the part of parents.

Case reports: The patients came from dysfunctional families in which members showed a tendency to addiction (alcohol) and were emotionally and physically absent from the lives of the girls. Due to considerable upbringing problems, girls were hospitalized many times, both in paediatric wards and in psychiatric wards for children and adolescents, with various medical diagnoses.

Conclusions: The presented cases of two patients indicate a potential cause-and-effect relationship between parental neglect, coexisting environmental factors (addictions of family members) and abnormal formation of the child’s personality, self-harm or suicide attempts. In such family systems, it is extremely important, apart from a court-appointed family guardian, to introduce a family assistant to provide emotional or advisory support.


The Rorschach test is the most well-known psychological test ever invented; it has captured the imagination of entire generations of clinicians, researchers, artists, writers, and ordinary participants in mass culture. Yet, no psychological test has faced such heavily emotional criticism. The drastically ambiguous status of this test in the community of psychologists can be call an identity crisis. This is the diagnosis presented in the book titled Assessment Using the Rorschach Inkblot Test by James P. Choca and Edward D. Rossini, American professors of clinical psychology currently affiliated with the Roosevelt University in Chicago. It was this book that inspired the present article. Choca and Rossini claim that the crisis associated with the use of the inkblot test stems from the lack of understanding of what the essence of this test actually is and from its improper usage. They also indicate realistic and practical ways to overcome this crisis.

Faced with the excessively elaborate systems for processing and interpreting the material obtained using the test, the authors attempt to create a short version of the inkblot test (Basic Rorschach). In the short version it is possible to use a smaller number of categories or even limit oneself to use only four plates instead of ten. Choca and Rossini admit that the Basic Rorschach requires further studies; they are also willing to give psychologists a great degree of freedom and the possibility of deciding what to take into account and what to ignore in the interpretation of results. They also propose to introduce a new final phase of the test, which, in a way, involves the examinee in the process of analyzing his or her responses.

In this paper I address the changes proposed by the authors, concerning both the procedure and the manner of categorizing and interpreting responses. For this purpose, I use own clinical experience and the results of my empirical research.


Introduction: The opinion prevailing in western culture is that overweight people should be ashamed of their weight and looks. The idea is supported by the way the society perceives overweight people. Evidence that obesity is associated with chronic illness and a short life span is the main justification. However, the distorted body image does not seem to facilitate weight control.

Source and method: The purpose of the thesis is to present obese people body image. To present the data, the following electronic databases have been searched: PubMed, Elsevier, Cochrane Library. The bibliographic analysis of the selected studies has also been performed. The systematic literature search has been performed with the use of the following key words: “obesity” OR “overweight” AND “body image” OR “body dissatisfaction” OR “body acceptance” OR “body image”.

Discussion: We present a discussion of the results obtained.

Conclusions: The research indicates that negative body image can actually contribute to obesity-related health problems. Overweight and obese people, who accept their body weight, experience less physically and mentally “bad” days than people who are dissatisfied with their weight. Body dissatisfaction was identified as a psychological corellator of obesity related with eating disorders, low self-esteem and depression. However, not all obese people are equally affected by these correlates. “Normative dissatisfaction” also occurs in people with normal body weight. In this context, the complex correlation between body image and individual body weight seems to be a valuable research direction.


Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women at the reproductive age. In 2018, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) developed and published new accurate recommendations for the diagnosis and management of women with PCOS. In this work, a separate chapter is devoted to the quality of life and mental disorders in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Material and Methods: This article provides an overview of the literature regarding mental disorders associated with PCOS with the focus on the ESHRE recommendations.

Conclusion: The medical staff and patients should be aware of the negative impact of polycystic ovary syndrome on the quality of life, coexistence of depression, anxiety, psychosexual and eating disorders.


The goal of the article is to present the theoretical and empirical research as for development of preschoolers’ personal privacy and to determine their parents’ contribution to this process.

Research methodology: In order to find out ways of preschoolers’ privacy development and parental attitudes towards it, the sample of adults was divided into two groups for comparison: 84 parents (42 parents of 4-year old children and 42 parents of 6-year old children). To this end, the following diagnostic techniques were used: the questionnaire “Sovereignty of a psychological space” (Nartova-Bochaver S.K.), the method “Actors and typical causes of conflicts at each age stage” (Venkova N.A.). Two groups of children of 4 (n=26) and 6 (n=28) years were examined with the method “My house” to study characteristics of preschoolers’ psychological boundaries, their dynamic features and methods of protection, (Silina O.V.). Methods of mathematical statistics were used to estimate empirical data.

Research results: The empirical research of 84 parents (Ukraine) having children in preschool age show that preschoolers’ personal privacy is mainly developed due to expansion of such components of their psychological space as personal territory, habits and values. The closest social environment, in particular parents, is only partly ready to support children’s pursuit for the sovereignty of their psychological space.

Discussion: The psychological support of preschoolers’ privacy development is possible only with psychological work with their parents as leading agents of their socialization. This work should be aimed at harmonization of parents’ attitudes towards children’s claims to have a personal space. Such support should include psychological enlightenment, active social psychological trainings, counselling and psychotherapy, specially organized for all actors influencing children’s psychological space development.


Introduction: Currently, there are no fully reliable biomarkers to identify individuals suffering from depression, and conventional antidepressant treatment has its limitations. The potential influence of acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC) on the treatment of mental disorders, including depressive disorders, was noted already in the 1980s.

Goal and method: The literature on the role of LAC in the treatment of mental disorders, in particular depressive disorders, was reviewed using the Google Scholar and Pub Med databases. Two lines of research were considered:

  1. 1the role of LAC in the therapy of various mental disorders and
  2. 2the role of LAC in the treatment of depression and dysthymia

Conclusions: Because LAC is safe to use and has a very good tolerance profile, authors have explored its role in the treatment of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. There are studies showing that LAC supplementation has a positive effect on ADHD treatment outcomes in boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome and plays a role in the treatment of dementia. Research has also been conducted on the impact of LAC on the treatment of depressive and dysthymic disorders. Positive outcomes of such therapy have been reported. An important correlation has been observed between LAC concentrations and the severity and onset of depressive symptoms. For instance, reduced levels of LAC have been found in people with treatment-refractory depression. It has also been proposed that LAC could decrease vulnerability to depression.


Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the differences in selected clinical variables and self-image in people with alcohol dependence differing in severity of physical, emotional and sexual abuse experienced before age 18.

Method: The study included 90 people with alcohol dependence. The following research tools were used: Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), Adjective Check List (ACL), MAST, SAAD, and a questionnaire designed by the authors. In order to identify groups with varying indices of physical, emotional and sexual childhood abuse, a cluster analysis method was used.

Results: Two groups of subjects with alcohol dependence were identified: Group 1 with high indices of physical, emotional and sexual childhood abuse and Group 2 with low indices. In terms of self-image the subjects in Group 1 compared to subjects in Group 2 were characterized by a lower self-esteem, self-acceptance, resistance to stress, less intense needs for achievement, endurance, order, nurturing others, interaction with opposite-sex partners, subordinations but more intense need for change. The age of alcohol use initiation and the onset of regular alcohol drinking was statistically significantly lower in Group 1. The severity of alcohol dependence was significantly lower in Group 2. The subjects in Group 1 significantly more frequently confirmed the history of a hereditary predisposition to alcohol dependence, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and self-harm.

Discussion: The obtained results closely correspond to the data available in the literature.

Conclusions: An assessment of exposure to various forms of childhood abuse appears to be an indispensable element of collecting medical history of people with alcohol dependence.


Introduction: Language disorders defined as schizophasia are one of the key symptoms of schizophrenia, especially in the disorganized form of this psychosis, which is reflected in the description of “loose associations” as one of the core negative symptoms according to P. E. Bleuler. At present, the disruption of text at the level of discourse coherence and syntactic impoverishment at the sentence level are regarded as the linguistic basis of schizophasia. The most often applied tool for clinical assessment of schizophasia is the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) devised by N. Andreasen.

Objective: The paper presents language samples of patients suffering from schizophrenia with a high intensity of schizophasia, but above all, text samples created by speech therapy students, which were supposed to simulate the language pathology of the sick. The aim of the study was to compare these two corps of the text in order to assess how classes on schizophasia affect the understanding of specific language phenomena in the field of text coherence disorders, such as derailment, incoherence, distractible speech, loss of goal.


1. Text body obtained from two patients suffering from schizophrenia with a high level of schizophasia.

2. Corpus of the text constructed by two students of speech therapy, during academic classes on schizophasia.

Results: This study presents specimens of speech by schizophrenic patients with a high intensity of schizophasia, but first of all text specimens authored by logopedics students, which were intended to simulate the language pathology of patients suffering from schizophasia.

Conclusions: The essence of schizophasic language disorders is apparently the disorders of text coherence at the pragmatic, semantic and syntactic levels. The presented schizophasic utterances constructed by logopedics students are very similar to genuine specimens of schizophasic speech – they are proof of the understanding of what schizophasia is. We may hope that the presentation of language disorders from the texts spoken by patients with schizophrenia, and then the attempt to construct analogous utterances, is conducive to better understanding of the essence of schizophasia, i.e. the disruption of text at the level of building the whole utterance but also at the sentence (phrase) level in the form of syntactic impoverishment.