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Introduction: The opinion prevailing in western culture is that overweight people should be ashamed of their weight and looks. The idea is supported by the way the society perceives overweight people. Evidence that obesity is associated with chronic illness and a short life span is the main justification. However, the distorted body image does not seem to facilitate weight control.

Source and method: The purpose of the thesis is to present obese people body image. To present the data, the following electronic databases have been searched: PubMed, Elsevier, Cochrane Library. The bibliographic analysis of the selected studies has also been performed. The systematic literature search has been performed with the use of the following key words: “obesity” OR “overweight” AND “body image” OR “body dissatisfaction” OR “body acceptance” OR “body image”.

Discussion: We present a discussion of the results obtained.

Conclusions: The research indicates that negative body image can actually contribute to obesity-related health problems. Overweight and obese people, who accept their body weight, experience less physically and mentally “bad” days than people who are dissatisfied with their weight. Body dissatisfaction was identified as a psychological corellator of obesity related with eating disorders, low self-esteem and depression. However, not all obese people are equally affected by these correlates. “Normative dissatisfaction” also occurs in people with normal body weight. In this context, the complex correlation between body image and individual body weight seems to be a valuable research direction.


The аim is to study family influence on formation of eating and weight disorders. The concept of an “alimentary family” is defined as a family with dysfunctional, disharmonious relationships, which is a prerequisite for emergence and support of distorted patterns of eating behaviour, leading in the future to children’s eating and weight disorders.

Methods: The research was carried out using the method of a thematic retrospective analysis (MTRA)-food, which is a variant of the narrative method, the questionnaire "Parental convictions and control tactics as for eating behaviour of their children during food taking". The data was processed by the content analysis method; Fisher's φ-criterion was used to compare differences between the groups.

Results: The research has allowed us to clarify eating behavioural characteristics and to identify the “roots” of eating disorders. Various forms of forcing at eating, direct and indirect ways of making children to eat or blocking of eating are manifested in ignoring of children’s taste preferences, their desire and readiness to eat. Parents often use manipulative techniques influencing children’s eating behaviour (encouragement, inducement, reward promises, approval, recognition, warning, or switching attention), direct means of influence (coercion: prohibition, restriction, rejection, destructive criticism, intimidation, deprivation from various pleasures). There is the statistical confirmation that parents’ use of manipulative means and / or direct coercion towards their children during eating predetermines formation of pathological processes of corporeality, attitudes and psychological mechanisms stipulating eating disorders.

Conclusions: The research results indicate necessity to develop psychotherapeutic programs for people with eating disorders, as well as programs to help parents improve family relationships and, accordingly, to apply correctional effects on their children.


The issue of parental neglect is a constantly topical one. Neglect is not only the lack of satisfying basic needs, but also the lack of ensuring a sense of security, belonging, and insufficient physical, emotional or verbal closeness with the child. Poor parental care, lack of a sense of closeness and availability of the parent, along with other environmental factors (e.g. addictions, diseases and mental disorders in the family) result in abnormal formation of the child's personality, and can also be associated with depression, anxiety, self-harm or suicide attempts.

The aim of the study was to present the clinical cases of two teenage patients (AA. – 13 years old, BB. – 16 years old) staying in the I Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention in Lublin (Department for Children and Youth), whose mental health problems were caused by a constant neglect on the part of parents.

Case reports: The patients came from dysfunctional families in which members showed a tendency to addiction (alcohol) and were emotionally and physically absent from the lives of the girls. Due to considerable upbringing problems, girls were hospitalized many times, both in paediatric wards and in psychiatric wards for children and adolescents, with various medical diagnoses.

Conclusions: The presented cases of two patients indicate a potential cause-and-effect relationship between parental neglect, coexisting environmental factors (addictions of family members) and abnormal formation of the child's personality, self-harm or suicide attempts. In such family systems, it is extremely important, apart from a court-appointed family guardian, to introduce a family assistant to provide emotional or advisory support.


The Rorschach test is the most well-known psychological test ever invented; it has captured the imagination of entire generations of clinicians, researchers, artists, writers, and ordinary participants in mass culture. Yet, no psychological test has faced such heavily emotional criticism. The drastically ambiguous status of this test in the community of psychologists can be call an identity crisis. This is the diagnosis presented in the book titled Assessment Using the Rorschach Inkblot Test by James P. Choca and Edward D. Rossini, American professors of clinical psychology currently affiliated with the Roosevelt University in Chicago. It was this book that inspired the present article. Choca and Rossini claim that the crisis associated with the use of the inkblot test stems from the lack of understanding of what the essence of this test actually is and from its improper usage. They also indicate realistic and practical ways to overcome this crisis.

Faced with the excessively elaborate systems for processing and interpreting the material obtained using the test, the authors attempt to create a short version of the inkblot test (Basic Rorschach). In the short version it is possible to use a smaller number of categories or even limit oneself to use only four plates instead of ten. Choca and Rossini admit that the Basic Rorschach requires further studies; they are also willing to give psychologists a great degree of freedom and the possibility of deciding what to take into account and what to ignore in the interpretation of results. They also propose to introduce a new final phase of the test, which, in a way, involves the examinee in the process of analyzing his or her responses.

In this paper I address the changes proposed by the authors, concerning both the procedure and the manner of categorizing and interpreting responses. For this purpose, I use own clinical experience and the results of my empirical research.


Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women at the reproductive age. In 2018, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) developed and published new accurate recommendations for the diagnosis and management of women with PCOS. In this work, a separate chapter is devoted to the quality of life and mental disorders in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Material and Methods: This article provides an overview of the literature regarding mental disorders associated with PCOS with the focus on the ESHRE recommendations.

Conclusion: The medical staff and patients should be aware of the negative impact of polycystic ovary syndrome on the quality of life, coexistence of depression, anxiety, psychosexual and eating disorders.


Introduction: Currently, there are no fully reliable biomarkers to identify individuals suffering from depression, and conventional antidepressant treatment has its limitations. The potential influence of acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC) on the treatment of mental disorders, including depressive disorders, was noted already in the 1980s.

Goal and method: The literature on the role of LAC in the treatment of mental disorders, in particular depressive disorders, was reviewed using the Google Scholar and Pub Med databases. Two lines of research were considered:

1. the role of LAC in the therapy of various mental disorders and

2. the role of LAC in the treatment of depression and dysthymia

Conclusions: Because LAC is safe to use and has a very good tolerance profile, authors have explored its role in the treatment of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. There are studies showing that LAC supplementation has a positive effect on ADHD treatment outcomes in boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome and plays a role in the treatment of dementia. Research has also been conducted on the impact of LAC on the treatment of depressive and dysthymic disorders. Positive outcomes of such therapy have been reported. An important correlation has been observed between LAC concentrations and the severity and onset of depressive symptoms. For instance, reduced levels of LAC have been found in people with treatment-refractory depression. It has also been proposed that LAC could decrease vulnerability to depression.


Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the differences in selected clinical variables and self-image in people with alcohol dependence differing in severity of physical, emotional and sexual abuse experienced before age 18.

Method: The study included 90 people with alcohol dependence. The following research tools were used: Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), Adjective Check List (ACL), MAST, SAAD, and a questionnaire designed by the authors. In order to identify groups with varying indices of physical, emotional and sexual childhood abuse, a cluster analysis method was used.

Results: Two groups of subjects with alcohol dependence were identified: Group 1 with high indices of physical, emotional and sexual childhood abuse and Group 2 with low indices. In terms of self-image the subjects in Group 1 compared to subjects in Group 2 were characterized by a lower self-esteem, self-acceptance, resistance to stress, less intense needs for achievement, endurance, order, nurturing others, interaction with opposite-sex partners, subordinations but more intense need for change. The age of alcohol use initiation and the onset of regular alcohol drinking was statistically significantly lower in Group 1. The severity of alcohol dependence was significantly lower in Group 2. The subjects in Group 1 significantly more frequently confirmed the history of a hereditary predisposition to alcohol dependence, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and self-harm.

Discussion: The obtained results closely correspond to the data available in the literature.

Conclusions: An assessment of exposure to various forms of childhood abuse appears to be an indispensable element of collecting medical history of people with alcohol dependence.


Objective. Olanzapine (OLA), amisulpride (AMI), aripiprazole (ARI), and quetiapine (QUE) belong to antipsychotics, which administration represents still most reliable way for the treatment of schizophrenic and bipolar disorders. The intention of the present study was to explore whether the acute administration of a particular antipsychotic, indicated by the presence of c-Fos, will: a) stimulate neurons already activated by a long lasting homogeneous or heterogeneous stress preconditioning, indicated by the FosB/ΔFosB (ΔFosB) expression, or b) have a stimulatory effect only on a not activated, so called silent neurons. The pattern of ΔFosB and c-Fos spatial relationship was investigated in three forebrain structures, including the septal ventrolateral nucleus (seVL), the striatal dorsolateral area (stDL), and the shell of the nucleus accumbens (shell).

Methods. The rats were divided into 10 groups and exposed to two types of stressors. Half of them was exposed to a sequence of homogeneous stressor – handling (HDL) and the other half to a heterogeneous stressor (CMS) daily for 20 days. CMS consisted of five types of stressors: crowding, air-puff, wet bedding, predator stress, and forced swimming applied in an unexpected order. On the 21st day of the experiment, the rats were free of the stress exposure and on the 22nd day, both groups of animals receive a single intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (4% DMSO in saline, 0.1 ml/100 g) or OLA (5 mg/kg), AMI (20 mg/kg), ARI (10 mg/kg), and QUE (15 mg/kg). 90 min after the drugs administration the animals were transcardially perfused, brains removed, cut into 30 µm thick coronal sections, and double stained: first with ΔFosB antibody linked with Alexa488 fluorescent dye and second with c-Fos antibody linked to Alexa596 one. Quantitative evaluation of ΔFosB and c-Fos colocalizations was performed on fluorescence photomicrographs transformed into a final picture containing only yellow, green, and red colored circles.

Results. The data of this investigation demonstrate that ΔFosB and c-Fos colocalizations occurred in each of the three areas investigated, i.e. seVL, stDL, and shell ones, in both HDL as well as CMS preconditioned rats. The levels of ΔFosB and c-Fos colocalizations varied in the individual forebrain areas studied. From the total 22 areas measured, level of c-Fos colocalization prevailed over ΔFosB in 18 ones. However, neither c-Fos nor ΔFosB reached 100% level of colocalization in any of the forebrain areas investigated.

Conclusion. The present findings indicate that ΔFosB and c-Fos colocalizations occurred in each of the three areas investigated, i.e. seVL, stDL, and shell, in both HDL and CMS preconditioned rats, whereas the parallel occurrence of free c-Fos as well as c-Fos colocalized with ΔFosB might speak out for a possible involvement of the c-Fos activated by antipsychotics applied in dual, i.e. short- and long-lasting, functions.


Objectives. Bisphenol A (BPA) has been reported that among other male reproductive dys-functions, it can cause marked estrogenic effects including alteration in serum hormones as well as testicular lesions in exposed animals. This work sought to study the role of gallic acid (GA), a known antioxidant, on the BPA-induced testicular oxidative stress in adult male Wistar rats using serum hormone analysis, histopathology, and biochemical assays.

Methods. Adult male rats were divided into four groups (n=10) including control (0.2 ml of corn oil), GA (20 mg/kg/day), BPA (10 mg/kg/day), BPA+GA (BPA, 10 mg/kg/day + GA, 20 mg/kg/day). All medications were given by oral gavage for 45 consecutive days. The body and testicular weights were measured. Blood and organ samples were collected for the serum hormonal assay: testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL), and tissue biochemistry analysis: superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), respectively.

Results. The BPA-treated rats showed significant reduction in the gonadosomatic index. BPA also caused significant decrease in the levels of the serum testosterone and prolactin. Furthermore, BPA induced testicular oxidative stress by decreasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and increasing reactive oxygen species. However, co-treatment with GA protected against these alterations.

Conclusion. Findings from the present study confirmed the previously reported data and show that the ability of GA, as a potent antioxidant, may protect against BPA-induced alterations in the male reproductive function. Hence, GA protects against testicular oxidative stress in adult male Wistar rats following chronic exposure to BPA.


Objective. C-peptide is a reliable marker of beta cell reserve and is associated with diabetic complications. Furthermore, HbA1c level is associated with micro- and macro-vascular complications in diabetic patients. HbA1c measurement of diabetic patients with anemia may be misleading because HbA1c is calculated in percent by taking reference to hemoglobin measurements. We hypothesized that there may be a relationship between C-peptide index (CPI) and proteinuria in anemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between C-peptide levels and CPI in anemic patients with T2DM and proteinuria.

Methods. The patients over 18 years of age with T2DM whose C-peptide levels were analyzed in Endocrinology and Internal medicine clinics between 2014 and 2018 with normal kidney functions (GFR>60 ml/min) and who do not use any insulin secretagogue oral antidiabetic agent (i.e. sulfonylurea) were enrolled into the study.

Results. Hemoglobin levels were present in 342 patients with T2DM. Among these 342 cases, 258 (75.4%) were non-anemic whereas 84 (24.6%) were anemic. The median DM duration of the anemic group was statistically significantly higher in T2DM (p=0.003). There was no statistically significant difference found in proteinuria prevalence between non-anemic and anemic patient groups (p=0.690 and p=0.748, respectively). Anemic T2DM cases were corrected according to the age, gender, and duration of DM. C-peptide and CPI levels were not statistically significant to predict proteinuria (p=0.449 and p=0.465, respectively).

Conclusion. The present study sheds light to the association between C-peptide, CPI, and anemic diabetic nephropathy in T2DM patients and indicates that further prospective studies are needed to clarify this issue.